Steady natural convection of water near the density extremum in a vertical annulus is studied numerically. Results for flow in annuli with aspect ratio 1≤A≤8 and varying degrees of curvature are given for 103≤Ra≤105. It is shown that both the density distribution parameter R and the annulus curvature K have a strong effect on the steady flow structure and heat transfer in the annulus. A closed-form solution for the vertical flow in a very tall annulus is compared with numerical results for finite-aspect-ratio annuli.

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