A numerical investigation was conducted to study the simultaneous effects of free convection and axial conduction on forced-convection heat transfer inside a vertical channel at low Peclet numbers. Insulated entry and exit lengths were provided in order to assess the effect of upstream and downstream energy penetration due to axial conduction. The fluid enters the channel with a parabolic velocity and uniform temperature profiles. A constant-property (except for the buoyancy term), steady-state case was assumed for the analysis. Results were categorized into two main groups, the first being the case where the channel walls were hotter than the entering fluid (heating), and the second being the reverse of the first (cooling). For each group, heat transfer between the fluid and the walls were given as functions of the Grashof, Peclet, and Reynolds numbers.

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