Flow visualization studies and heat transfer measurements have been made for water flow in an open channel which is uniformly heated from below. In addition, a two-dimensional boundary layer model, which includes a buoyancy term in the momentum equation and accounts for the effect of buoyancy on turbulence, has been used to predict the heat transfer measurements. Thermal boundary layer development involves an inlet region for which buoyancy effects are negligible, a transition region characterized by mixed convection, and a downstream region which is dominated by turbulent free convection. The regions are delineated in terms of the mixed convection parameter Grx/Rex3/2, and heat transfer measurements are compared with existing forced, free, and mixed convection correlations.

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