Accurate and simple correlations are presented to determine the inception conditions of density-wave oscillations in steam generator tubes. The correlations predict the power at the start of the density-wave oscillations within about 6.5 percent accuracy for long (i.e., L ≥ 10 m) forced circulation steam generator tubes and within about 20 percent accuracy for natural circulation and short forced circulation steam generator tubes. The ranges of the operating conditions and geometries for the data used to establish the correlations are as follows: Forced circulation tubes: Geometry: circular-straight tubes and serpentines, a circular coil and a rectangular straight tube; type of heating: electrical or sodium heating; the ratio of the heated length to diameter: 153–9502; pressure: 4.1–17.3 MN/m2; outlet steam quality: 0.27–1.85; inlet subcooling: 2.8–245.9 K; mass velocity: 118–2088 kg/m2s. Natural circulation tubes: Geometry and heating conditions: electrically heated circular tubes and annuli; ratio of the heated length to diameter: 34–489; pressure: 0.2–7.1 MN/m2; outlet steam quality: 0.04–0.62; inlet subcooling: 0–244 K; mass velocity: 529–1230 kg/m2s. The number of data considered is 106 for forced circulation tubes and 110 for natural circulation tubes.
Correlations for the Determination of the Inception Conditions of Density-Wave Oscillations for Forced and Natural Circulation Steam Generator Tubes
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U¨nal, H. C. (February 1, 1980). "Correlations for the Determination of the Inception Conditions of Density-Wave Oscillations for Forced and Natural Circulation Steam Generator Tubes." ASME. J. Heat Transfer. February 1980; 102(1): 14–19. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3244227
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