A three-dimensional model is presented which describes the thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of a turbulent heated jet entering at the surface of a receiving body of water. A two-equation turbulence model, together with a semi-empirical description of the preferential attenuation of vertical turbulent exchange due to buoyancy, is used to predict non-isotropic turbulent diffusivities. A finite-difference solution method, involving several novel features, has been used. Predictions are compared with both field and laboratory measurements, for both deep and shallow receiving basins, for the special case of a quiescent ambient fluid. Good agreement is found, indicating that the model can be reliably used as a design tool, or to evaluate the environmental impact of surface discharges.

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