Abstract

The stringent emission regulations diesel engines are required to meet has resulted in the usage of multi-hole and ultra-multi-hole injectors, nowadays. In this research study, a double layered 8-hole diesel injection nozzle was investigated both numerically and experimentally. A three-dimensional model of the nozzle which was validated with experimental results was used to analyze the injection characteristics of each hole. The validation was conducted by comparing experiment and simulation injection rate results, acquired simultaneously from all the holes of the injector and the model. The fuel flow rates of the lower layered holes are higher than those of the upper layered holes. Two different needle eccentricity models were established. The first model only included the lateral displacement of the needle during needle lift. The needle reached maximum displacement at full needle lift. The second model considered the needle inelastic deformation into consideration. The needle radially displaces and glides along with the needle seat surface during needle lift. When the eccentricity reached maximum in the radial direction, the needle began to lift upwards vertically. The differences in injection characteristics under the different eccentricity models were apparent. The results indicated that the cycle injection quantity, fuel injection rate and cavitation of each hole were affected during the initial lifting stages of the needle lift. As the eccentricity of the needle increases, the injection rate uniformity from the nozzle hole deteriorates. The result showed that the upper layered holes were affected by the needle eccentricity during needle lift.

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