A diffusion limited model has been described previously to simulate accurately the thermal NOx emission processes in various gas turbine combustors for fuels containing negligible amounts of fuel bound nitrogen. The application of this model to simulate accurately the water injection process has also been demonstrated. It is currently proposed that any bound nitrogen in fuel is completely reacted to form nitric oxide during the hydrocarbon combustion process; the ultimate net conversion is determined subsequently based on the Zeldovich mechanisms. With this additional assumption, this model has been generalized to include the use of fuels containing significant amounts of bound nitrogen, such as crude or residual oils. The predicted NOx emissions from these nitrogen containing fuels are in excellent agreement with laboratory and field data including the effect of water injection. Comprehensive understanding of the NOx formation processes has been gained from the current analytical study.

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