A mathematical model of Stirling-type engines has been developed. The complexity of the problem has been reduced by analyzing the various components of the engine (heat exchangers, regenerator, and cylinders) separately for cyclically steady conditions, and by selecting pressure, temperature, and mass as the independent variables. The required piston displacements are a computed result. Losses due to flow friction, piston blow-by, and finite heat transfer rates have been accounted for by applying correction factors to the basic performance which is computed without these effects. The theory has been carried out for engines, but it is equally valid for refrigerators with minor modification. The theory is in good agreement with available experimental data.

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