The problem of isolating a water pipe system from the effects of a long duration blast wave resulting from a nuclear explosion is discussed. For an impact load of constant amplitude, the load at the end of the pipe has twice the magnitude of the impact load at the entrance of the pipe and has a duration dependent upon the pipe length. However, certain blasts have pressure-time histories which can induce even higher reflection factors than the usual factor of 2. These pressure-time histories, acting upon a water column in a closed-ended pipe, are analyzed by a time-position wave diagram.

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