Flow patterns and mixing in actual furnaces can be best appreciated by starting with free jets and proceeding via jets in simple envelopes to jets (cold or alight) fed with surrounding air streams and impacting on surfaces. The fuel stream in an open-hearth furnace behaves initially as a free jet, entraining the relatively low velocity air around it, but on hitting the bath it splashes and runs forward and up the side walls. The gases reaching the roof eject flux droplets and then divide, part recirculating to meet the oncoming air and part joining the main flow to the exit. Future progress requires more knowledge of droplet dynamics, and demands more symmetrical flow, control of recirculation, or radical changes.

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