Microchannel manufacturing is one of the fastest growing areas in advanced manufacturing with numerous applications, including turbine blade cooling structures, compact microchannel heat exchangers, and electronic cooling devices. Recent development of metallic additive manufacturing (AM) based on direct metal laser sintering technology is capable of fabricating microscale structures with high complexity and design flexibility. However, powder bed laser sintering process produces rough surface characteristics caused by hatch overlaps and particle attachments, leading to channel size reductions and rough surfaces. In this paper, dimensional metrology of cross-sectional views of multirow microchannels made by AM was conducted by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at different locations along the printing direction. Channel size reduction, surface roughness, and circularity tolerance of the as-printed channels were analyzed based on micrographs captured by SEM. Results showed that both channel sizes and hole pitches affected the printing qualities of microchannels. The as-printed channel sizes reduced by more than 15% compared to the designed values. Two approaches were made in this paper to improve printing qualities. The first one was to redesign channel size in computer-aided design (CAD) model to make the as-printed channel sizes closer to the objective values. Electrochemical polishing (ECP) was then applied as a second way using sulfuric acid solutions. Surface roughness value was reduced by more than 40% after the ECP process.