The accurate simulation of two-phase flow combustion is crucial for the design of aeronautical combustion chambers. In order to gain insight into complex interactions between a flame, a flow, and a liquid phase, the present work addresses the combustion modeling for the large eddy simulation (LES) of a turbulent spray jet flame. The Eulerian–Lagrangian framework is selected to represent the gaseous and liquid phases, respectively. Chemical processes are described by a reduced mechanism, and turbulent combustion is modeled by the thickened flame model (TFM) coupled to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The TFM-AMR extension on the dispersed phase is successfully validated on a laminar spray flame configuration. Then, the modeling approach is evaluated on the academic turbulent spray burner, providing a good agreement with the experimental data.