Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) offers an approach to quantify cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of the flow field inside the internal combustion engine cylinder. POD decomposes instantaneous flow fields (also called snapshots) into a series of orthonormal flow patterns (called POD modes) and the corresponding mode coefficients. The POD modes are rank-ordered by decreasing kinetic energy content, and the low-order, high-energy modes are interpreted as constituting the large-scale coherent flow structure that varies from engine cycle to engine cycle. Various POD-based analysis techniques have thus been proposed to characterize engine flow field CCV using these low-order modes. The validity of such POD-based analyses rests, as a matter of course, on the reliability of the underlying POD results (modes and coefficients). Yet a POD mode can be disproportionately skewed by a single outlier snapshot within a large data set, and an algorithm exists to define and identify such outliers. In this paper, the effects of a candidate outlier snapshot on the results of POD-based conditional averaging and quadruple POD analyses are examined for two sets of crank angle-resolved flow fields on the midtumble plane of an optical engine cylinder recorded by high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results with and without the candidate outlier are compared and contrasted. In the case of POD-based conditional averaging, the presence of the outlier scrambles the composition of snapshot subsets that define large-scale flow pattern variations, and thus substantially alters the coherent flow structures that are identified; for quadruple POD, the shape of coherent structures and the number of modes to define them are not significantly affected by the outlier.
Effects of Outlier Flow Field on the Characteristics of In-Cylinder Coherent Structures Identified by Proper Orthogonal Decomposition-Based Conditional Averaging and Quadruple Proper Orthogonal Decomposition
Manuscript received March 12, 2019; final manuscript received March 24, 2019; published online April 15, 2019. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.
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Gao, R., Shen, L., Teh, K., Ge, P., Zhao, F., and Hung, D. L. (April 15, 2019). "Effects of Outlier Flow Field on the Characteristics of In-Cylinder Coherent Structures Identified by Proper Orthogonal Decomposition-Based Conditional Averaging and Quadruple Proper Orthogonal Decomposition." ASME. J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. August 2019; 141(8): 081012. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4043307
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