Heavy-duty compression–ignition (CI) engines converted to natural gas (NG) spark ignition (SI) operation have the potential to increase the use of NG in the transportation sector. A three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation was used to predict how the conventional CI combustion chamber geometry (i.e., re-entrant bowl and flat head) affects the combustion stability, performance, and emissions of a single-cylinder CI engine that was converted to SI operation by adding a low-pressure gas injector in the intake manifold and a spark plug in place of the diesel injector. The G-equation based 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation investigated three different combustion chamber configurations that change the size of the squish region at a constant compression ratio (CR) and a clearance height. The results show that the different flame propagation speeds inside and outside the re-entrant bowl can create a two-zone combustion phenomenon. Moreover, a larger squish region increased the flame burning speed, which decreased late-combustion duration (DOC). All these findings support the need for further investigations of the combustion chamber shape design for optimum engine performance and emissions in CI engines converted to NG SI operation.

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