This study focuses NH3 as an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines, because NH3 is known as a H2 carrier and its combustion does not produce CO2 causing global warming. On the other hand, some reports show that unburned NH3 and N2O appear in exhaust gas, when NH3 is used as fuel for compression ignition or spark ignition engines. NH3 is toxic and N2O is one of the greenhouse gases. These emissions should not be emitted. These reports point out that exhaust gas after treatments and/or injection strategies can be effective to reduce these emissions. From our previous investigations, it was confirmed that NH3 and N2O were contained in the exhaust gas of a conventional diesel engine with NH3 gas mixed into the engine intake. In this study, NH3 combustion processes in the diesel engine were investigated from the experimental results. Based on the investigations, a pilot or postinjection was conducted to reduce emissions of NH3 and N2O. In this paper, first the experimental results of the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics on the conventional diesel engine with NH3 gas mixed into the engine intake are shown. NH3 and N2O emissions are then verified by analyzing the exhaust gas. Next, NH3 combustion processes in the diesel engine are considered from the experimental results to report on the effects of a pilot and postdiesel fuel injection on NH3 and N2O production processes. The experimental results suggest that the multiple diesel fuel injections would be one of the effective measures to reduce N2O and NH3 emissions on NH3 and diesel dual-fueled engine.

References

References
1.
Angeles
,
D.
,
Are
,
K.
,
Aviso
,
K.
,
Tan
,
R.
, and
Razon
,
L.
,
2017
, “
Optimization of the Automotive Ammonia Fuel Cycle Using P-Graphs
,”
ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng.
,
5
(
9
), pp.
8277
8283
.
2.
Giddey
,
S.
,
Badwal
,
S.
,
Munnings
,
C.
, and
Dolan
,
M.
,
2017
, “
Ammonia as a Renewable Energy Transportation Media
,”
ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng.
,
5
(
11
), pp.
10231
10239
.
3.
Gray
,
J. T.
,
Dimitroff
,
E.
,
Meckel
,
N. T.
, and
Quillian
,
R. D.
,
1966
, “
Ammonia Fuel—Engine Compatibility and Combustion
,”
SAE
Paper No. 660156.
4.
Setchkin
,
N. P.
,
1954
, “
Self-Ignition Temperature of Combustible Liquids
,”
J. Res. Natl. Bureau Standards
,
53
(
1
), pp.
49
66
.
5.
Nakamura
,
H.
,
Hasegawa
,
S.
, and
Tezuka
,
T.
,
2017
, “
Kinetic Modeling of Ammonia/Air Weak Flames in a Micro Flow Reactor With a Controlled Temperature Profile
,”
Combust. Flame
,
185
, pp.
16
27
.
6.
Li
,
B.
,
Zhang
,
H.
, and
Egolfopoulos
,
F. N.
,
2014
, “
Laminar Flame Propagation of Atmospheric Iso-Cetane/Air and Decalin/Air Mixtures
,”
Combust. Flame
,
161
(
1
), pp.
154
161
.
7.
Pearsall
,
T. J.
, and
Garabedian
,
C. G.
,
1967
, “
Combustion of Anhydrous Ammonia in Diesel Engines
,”
SAE
Paper No. 670947.
8.
Newhall
,
H. K.
,
1965
, “
Calculation of Performance Using Ammonia Fuel—II: Diesel Cycle
,” University of California, Berkeley, CA, Report No. TS-65-3.
9.
Reiter
,
A. J.
, and
Kong
,
S.-C.
,
2008
, “
Demonstration of Compression-Ignition Engine Combustion Using Ammonia in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions
,”
Energy Fuels
,
22
(
5
), pp.
2963
2971
.
10.
Reiter
,
A. J.
, and
Kong
,
S.-C.
,
2011
, “
Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Compression-Ignition Engine Using Dual Ammonia-Diesel Fuel
,”
Fuel
,
90
(
1
), pp.
87
97
.
11.
Westlye
,
F. R.
,
Ivarsson
,
A.
, and
Schramm
,
J.
,
2013
, “
Experimental Investigation of Nitrogen Based Emissions From an Ammonia Fueled SI-Engine
,”
Fuel
,
111
, pp.
239
247
.
12.
Ryu
,
K.
,
Zacharakis-Jutz
,
G. E.
, and
Kong
,
S.-C.
,
2014
, “
Performance Characteristics of Compression-Ignition Engine Using High Concentration of Ammonia Mixed With Dimethyl Ether
,”
Appl. Energy
,
113
, pp.
488
499
.
13.
Ryu
,
K.
,
Zacharakis-Jutz
,
G. E.
, and
Kong
,
S.-C.
,
2014
, “
Effects of Gaseous Ammonia Direct Injection on Performance Characteristics of a Spark-Ignition Engine
,”
Appl. Energy
,
116
, pp.
206
215
.
14.
Xu
,
Z.
,
Nishio
,
S.
,
Ikame
,
M.
,
Ohashi
,
A.
, and
Ishimura
,
E.
,
2011
, “
Fuel Injection Control for Combustion Improvement of Used Vegetable Oil in Marine Diesel Engine
,”
Ninth International Symposium on Marine Engineering
, Kobe, Japan, Oct. 17–21, Paper No. C3-3.
15.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1995, “
Global Warming Potentials
,” United Nations Climate Change, Bonn, Germany, accessed Jan. 21, 2019, https://unfccc.int/process/transparency-and-reporting/greenhouse-gas-data/greenhouse-gas-data-unfccc/global-warming-potentials
16.
Dagaut
,
P.
,
Glarborg
,
P.
, and
Alzueta
,
M. U.
,
2008
, “
The Oxidation of Hydrogen Cyanide and Related Chemistry
,”
Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.
,
34
(
1
), pp.
1
46
.
17.
Mendiara
,
T.
, and
Glarborg
,
P.
,
2009
, “
Ammonia Chemistry in Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Methane
,”
Combust. Flame
,
156
(
10
), pp.
1937
1949
.
You do not currently have access to this content.