Jet in a cross-flow (JICF) is a flow arrangement found in many engineering applications, especially in gas turbine air–fuel mixing. Understanding of scalar mixing in JICF is important for low NOx burner design and operation, and numerical simulation techniques can be used to understand both spatial and temporal variation of air–fuel mixing quality in such applications. In this paper, mixing of the jet stream with the cross-flow is simulated by approximating the jet flow as a passive scalar and using the large eddy simulation (LES) technique to simulate the turbulent velocity field. A posteriori test is conducted to assess three dynamic subgrid scale models in modeling jet and cross-flow interaction with the boundary layer flow field. Simulated mean and Reynolds stress component values for velocity field and concentration fields are compared against experimental data to assess the capability of the LES technique, which showed good agreement between numerical and experimental results. Similarly, time mean and standard deviation values of passive scalar concentration also showed good agreement with experimental data. In addition, LES results are further used to discuss the scalar mixing field in the downstream mixing region.

References

References
1.
Lyons
,
V. J.
,
1982
, “
Fuel/Air Nonuniformity—Effect on Nitric Oxide Emissions
,”
AIAA J.
,
20
(
5
), pp.
660
665
.
2.
Fric
,
T. F.
,
1993
, “
Effects of Fuel-Air Unmixedness on NOx Emissions
,”
J. Propul. Power
,
9
(
5
), pp.
708
713
.
3.
Margason
,
R. J.
,
1993
, “
Fifty Years of Jet in Cross Flow Research
,”
Computational and Experimental Assessment of Jets in Cross Flow
, Vol.
1
, AGARD Conference Proceedings, Winchester, UK, Apr. 19–22, Paper No. 1.
4.
Hoda
,
A.
, and
Acharya
,
S.
,
2000
, “
Predictions of a Film Coolant Jet in Crossflow With Different Turbulence Models
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
122
(
3
), pp.
558
569
.
5.
Bouchez
,
J.-P.
, and
Goldstein
,
R.
,
1975
, “
Impingement Cooling From a Circular Jet in a Cross Flow
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
18
(
6
), pp.
719
730
.
6.
Schlüter
,
J.
, and
Schönfeld
,
T.
,
2000
, “
LES of Jets in Cross Flow and Its Application to a Gas Turbine Burner
,”
Flow, Turbul. Combust.
,
65
(
2
), pp.
177
203
.
7.
Keffer
,
J. F.
, and
Baines
,
W. D.
,
1963
, “
The Round Turbulent Jet in a Cross-Wind
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
15
(
4
), pp.
481
496
.
8.
Ramsey
,
J. W.
, and
Goldstein
,
R. J.
,
1971
, “
Interaction of a Heated Jet With a Deflecting Stream
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
93
(
4
), pp.
365
372
.
9.
Kamotani
,
Y.
, and
Greber
,
I.
,
1972
, “
Experiments on a Turbulent Jet in a Cross Flow
,”
AIAA J.
,
10
(
11
), pp.
1425
1429
.
10.
Crabb
,
D.
,
Durao
,
D.
, and
Whitelaw
,
J.
,
1981
, “
A Round Jet Normal to a Crossflow
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
103
(
1
), pp.
142
153
.
11.
Andreopoulos
,
J.
, and
Rodi
,
W.
,
1984
, “
Experimental Investigation of Jets in a Crossflow
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
138
(
1
), pp.
93
127
.
12.
Smith
,
S.
,
Lozano
,
A.
,
Mungal
,
M.
, and
Hanson
,
R.
,
1993
, “
Scalar Mixing in the Subsonic Jet in Crossflow
,”
Computational and Experimental Assessment of Jets in Cross Flow
, Vol.
1
, AGARD Conference Proceedings, Winchester, UK, Apr. 19–22, Paper No. 6.
13.
Smith
,
S. H.
, and
Mungal
,
M. G.
,
1998
, “
Mixing, Structure and Scaling of the Jet in Crossflow
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
357
, pp.
83
122
.
14.
Su
,
L. K.
, and
Mungal
,
M. G.
,
2004
, “
Simultaneous Measurements of Scalar and Velocity Field Evolution in Turbulent Crossflowing Jets
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
513
, pp.
1
45
.
15.
Cárdenas
,
C.
,
Suntz
,
R.
,
Denev
,
J. A.
, and
Bockhorn
,
H.
,
2007
, “
Two-Dimensional Estimation of Reynolds-Fluxes and -Stresses in a Jet-in-Crossflow Arrangement by Simultaneous 2D-LIF and PIV
,”
Appl. Phys. B
,
88
(
4
), pp.
581
591
.
16.
Galeazzo
,
F. C. C.
,
Donnert
,
G.
,
Habisreuther
,
P.
,
Zarzalis
,
N.
,
Valdes
,
R. J.
, and
Krebs
,
W.
,
2011
, “
Measurement and Simulation of Turbulent Mixing in a Jet in Crossflow
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
133
(
6
), p.
061504
.
17.
Cárdenas
,
C.
,
Sedlmaier
,
J.
,
Zarzalis
,
N.
,
Valdes
,
R. J.
, and
Krebs
,
W.
,
2011
, “
Measurement of a Benchmarking Jet in Crossflow Configuration Under Highly Turbulent Conditions
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2011-45262.
18.
Galeazzo
,
F. C. C.
,
2013
, “
Simulation of Turbulent Flows With and Without Combustion With Emphasis on the Impact of Coherent Structures on the Turbulent Mixing
,”
Ph.D. thesis
, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Karlsruhe, Germany.https://d-nb.info/1120463874/34
19.
Ivanova
,
E. M.
,
Noll
,
B. E.
, and
Aigner
,
M.
,
2012
, “
A Numerical Study on the Turbulent Schmidt Numbers in a Jet in Crossflow
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
135
(
1
), p.
011505
.
20.
Ivanova
,
E. M.
,
Noll
,
B. E.
, and
Aigner
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Computational Modeling of Turbulent Mixing of a Transverse Jet
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
133
(
2
), p.
021505
.
21.
Patankar
,
S. V.
,
Basu
,
D. K.
, and
Alpay
,
S. A.
,
1977
, “
Prediction of the Three-Dimensional Velocity Field of a Deflected Turbulent Jet
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
99
(
4
), pp.
758
762
.
22.
Alvarez
,
J.
,
Jones
,
W. P.
, and
Seoud
,
R.
,
1993
, “
Predictions of Momentum and Scalar Fields in a Jet in Cross-Flow Using First and Second Order Turbulence Closures
,”
Computational and Experimental Assessment of Jets in Cross Flow,
Vol.
1
, AGARD Conference Proceedings, Winchester, UK, Apr. 19–22, Paper No. 24.
23.
Launder
,
B.
, and
Samaraweera
,
D.
,
1979
, “
Application of a Second-Moment Turbulence Closure to Heat and Mass Transport in Thin Shear Flows—I: Two-Dimensional Transport
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
22
(
12
), pp.
1631
1643
.
24.
Jones
,
W.
, and
Wille
,
M.
,
1996
, “
Large-Eddy Simulation of a Plane Jet in a Cross-Flow
,”
Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow
,
17
(
3
), pp.
296
306
.
25.
Smagorinsky
,
J.
,
1963
, “
General Circulation Experiments With the Primitive Equations—I: The Basic Experiment
,”
Mon. Weather Rev.
,
91
(
3
), pp.
99
164
.
26.
Piomelli
,
U.
, and
Liu
,
J.
,
1995
, “
Large-Eddy Simulation of Rotating Channel Flows Using a Localized Dynamic Model
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
7
(
4
), pp.
839
848
.
27.
Schmidt
,
H.
, and
Schumann
,
U.
,
1989
, “
Coherent Structure of the Convective Boundary Layer Derived From Large-Eddy Simulations
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
200
(
1
), pp.
511
562
.
28.
Chen
,
K. S.
, and
Hwang
,
J. Y.
,
1991
, “
Experimental Study on the Mixing of One- and Dual-Line Heated Jets With a Cold Crossflow in a Confined Channel
,”
AIAA J.
,
29
(
3
), pp.
353
360
.
29.
Yuan
,
L. L.
,
Street
,
R. L.
, and
Ferziger
,
J. H.
,
1999
, “
Large-Eddy Simulations of a Round Jet in Crossflow
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
379
, pp.
71
104
.
30.
Sherif
,
S. A.
, and
Pletcher
,
R. H.
,
1989
, “
Measurements of the Flow and Turbulence Characteristics of Round Jets in Crossflow
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
111
(
2
), pp.
165
171
.
31.
Zang
,
Y.
,
Street
,
R. L.
, and
Koseff
,
J. R.
,
1993
, “
A Dynamic Mixed Subgrid-Scale Model and Its Application to Turbulent Recirculating Flows
,”
Phys. Fluids A
,
5
(
12
), pp.
3186
3196
.
32.
Majander
,
P.
, and
Siikonen
,
T.
,
2006
, “
Large-Eddy Simulation of a Round Jet in a Cross-Flow
,”
Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow
,
27
(
3
), pp.
402
415
.
33.
Salewski
,
M.
,
Stankovic
,
D.
, and
Fuchs
,
L.
,
2008
, “
Mixing in Circular and Non-Circular Jets in Crossflow
,”
Flow, Turbul. Combust.
,
80
(
2
), pp.
255
283
.
34.
Galeazzo
,
F. C. C.
,
Donnert
,
G.
,
Cárdenas
,
C.
,
Sedlmaier
,
J.
,
Habisreuther
,
P.
,
Zarzalis
,
N.
,
Beck
,
C.
, and
Krebs
,
W.
,
2013
, “
Computational Modeling of Turbulent Mixing in a Jet in Crossflow
,”
Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow
,
41
, pp.
55
65
.
35.
Germano
,
M.
,
Piomelli
,
U.
,
Moin
,
P.
, and
Cabot
,
W. H.
,
1991
, “
A Dynamic Subgrid-Scale Eddy Viscosity Model
,”
Phys. Fluids A
,
3
(
7
), p.
1760
.
36.
Lilly
,
D. K.
,
1992
, “
A Proposed Modification of the Germano Subgrid-Scale Closure Method
,”
Phys. Fluids A
,
4
(
3
), p.
633
.
37.
Vreman
,
B.
,
Geurts
,
B.
, and
Kuerten
,
H.
,
1994
, “
On the Formulation of the Dynamic Mixed Subgrid-Scale Model
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
6
(
12
), pp.
4057
4059
.
38.
Kornev
,
N. V.
,
Tkatchenko
,
I. V.
, and
Hassel
,
E.
,
2005
, “
A Simple Clipping Procedure for the Dynamic Mixed Model Based on Taylor Series Approximation
,”
Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.
,
22
(
1
), pp.
55
61
.
39.
Fureby
,
C.
,
Tabor
,
G.
,
Weller
,
H. G.
,
Gosman
,
A. D.
, and
Tabor
,
G.
,
1997
, “
A Comparative Study of Subgrid Scale Models in Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence
,”
Phys. Fluids A
,
9
(
5
), pp.
1416
1492
.
40.
de Villiers
,
E.
,
2006
, “
The Potential of Large-Eddy Simulation for the Modelling of Wall Bounded Flows
,” Ph.D. thesis, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London.
41.
Spalding
,
D. B.
,
1961
, “
A Single Formula for the “Law of the Wall
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
,
28
(
3
), pp.
455
458
.
42.
Pope
,
S. B.
,
2004
, “
Ten Questions Concerning the Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows
,”
New J. Phys.
,
6
(
1
), p.
35
.
43.
Lévêque
,
E.
,
Toschi
,
F.
,
Shao
,
L.
, and
Bertoglio
,
J.-P.
,
2007
, “
Shear-Improved Smagorinsky Model for Large-Eddy Simulation of Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
570
, pp.
491
502
.
44.
da Silva
,
C. B.
, and
Pereira
,
J. C.
,
2007
, “
Analysis of the Gradient-Diffusion Hypothesis in Large-Eddy Simulations Based on Transport Equations
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
19
(
3
), p.
035106
.
45.
Combest
,
D. P.
,
Ramachandran
,
P. A.
, and
Dudukovic
,
M. P.
,
2011
, “
On the Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis and Passive Scalar Transport in Turbulent Flows
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
50
(
15
), pp.
8817
8823
.
46.
Fric
,
T. F.
, and
Roshko
,
A.
,
1994
, “
Vortical Structure in the Wake of a Transverse Jet
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
279
(
1
), pp.
1
47
.
47.
Kelso
,
R. M.
, and
Smits
,
A. J.
,
1995
, “
Horseshoe Vortex Systems Resulting From the Interaction Between a Laminar Boundary Layer and a Transverse Jet
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
7
(
1
), pp.
153
158
.
48.
Andreopoulos
,
J.
,
1985
, “
On the Structure of Jets in a Crossflow
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
157
(
1
), pp.
163
197
.
49.
Kelso
,
R. M.
,
Lim
,
T.
, and
Perry
,
A.
,
1996
, “
An Experimental Study of Round Jets in Cross-Flow
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
306
(
1
), pp.
111
144
.
50.
Cortelezzi
,
L.
, and
Karagozian
,
A. R.
,
2001
, “
On the Formation of the Counter-Rotating Vortex Pair in Transverse Jets
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
446
, pp.
347
373
.
51.
Lim
,
T. T.
,
New
,
T. H.
, and
Luo
,
S. C.
,
2001
, “
On the Development of Large-Scale Structures of a Jet Normal to a Cross Flow
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
13
(
3
), pp.
770
775
.
52.
Jeong
,
J.
, and
Hussain
,
F.
,
1995
, “
On the Identification of a Vortex
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
285
(
1
), pp.
69
94
.
You do not currently have access to this content.