Emission and fuel consumption in swirl-supported diesel engines strongly depend on the in-cylinder turbulent flows. But the physical effects of squish flow on the tangential flow and turbulence production are still far from well understood. To identify the effects of squish flow, Particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments are performed in a motored optical diesel engine equipped with different bowls. By comparing and associating the large-scale flow and turbulent kinetic energy (k), the main effects of the squish flow are clarified. The effect of squish flow on the turbulence production in the rθ plane lies in the axial-asymmetry of the annular distribution of radial flow and the deviation between the ensemble-averaged swirl field and rigid body swirl field. Larger squish flow could promote the swirl center to move to the cylinder axis and reduce the deformation of swirl center, which could decrease the axial-asymmetry of annular distribution of radial flow, further, that results in a lower turbulence production of the shear stress. Moreover, larger squish flow increases the radial fluctuation velocity which makes a similar contribution to k with the tangential component. The understanding of the squish flow and its correlations with tangential flow and turbulence obtained in this study is beneficial to design and optimize the in-cylinder turbulent flow.

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