The basic principle of a distinct idea to reduce an aerodynamic mixing loss induced by the difference in tangential velocity between mainstream flow and rotor shroud leakage flow is presented in “Part I: Design Concept and Typical Performance of a Swirl Breaker.” When the swirl breaker is installed in the circulating region of leakage flow at the rotor shroud exit cavity, the axial distance between the swirl breaker and the rotor shroud is a crucial factor to trap the leakage flow into the swirl breaker cavity. In Part II, five cases of geometry with different axial distances between the swirl breaker and the rotor shroud, which covered a range for the stage axial distance of actual high and intermediate pressure (HIP) steam turbines, were investigated using a single-rotor computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis and verification tests in a 1.5-stage air model turbine. By decreasing the axial distance between the swirl breaker and the rotor shroud, the tangential velocity and the mixing region in the tip side which is influenced by the rotor shroud leakage flow were decreased and the stage efficiency was increased. The case of the shortest axial distance between the swirl breaker and the rotor shroud increased turbine stage efficiency by 0.7% compared to the conventional cavity geometry. In addition, the measured maximum pressure fluctuation in the swirl breaker cavity was only 0.7% of the entire flow pressure. Consequently, both performance characteristics and structural reliability of swirl breaker were verified for application to real steam turbines.

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