Several factors are being investigated that affect the performance of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) for use in land-based gas turbines where coatings are mainly thermally sprayed. This study examined high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF), air plasma-sprayed (APS), and vacuum plasma-sprayed (VPS) MCrAlYHfSi bond coatings with APS YSZ top coatings at 900–1100 °C. For superalloy 247 substrates and VPS coatings tested in 1 h cycles at 1100 °C, removing 0.6 wt %Si had no effect on average lifetime in 1 h cycles at 1100 °C, but adding 0.3%Ti had a negative effect. Rod specimens were coated with APS, HVOF, and HVOF with an outer APS layer bond coating and tested in 100 h cycles in air + 10%H2O at 1100 °C. With an HVOF bond coating, initial results indicate that 12.5 mm diameter rod specimens have much shorter 100 h cycle lifetimes than disk specimens. Much longer lifetimes were obtained when the bond coating had an inner HVOF layer and outer APS layer.

References

References
1.
Summerfield
,
I. R.
,
Goldthorpe
,
S. H.
, and
Bower
,
C. J.
,
1993
, “
Combating Global Warming–Reducing CO2 Emissions From Coal-Fired Power Plant
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. A
,
207
(
2
), pp.
81
88
.
2.
Southern Company, 2017, Southern Company, Atlanta, GA, accessed Sept. 5, 2018, www.southerncompany.com/newsroom/2017/june-2017/0628-kemper.html
3.
Naslain
,
R.
,
2004
, “
Design, Preparation and Properties of Non-Oxide CMCs for Application in Engines and Nuclear Reactors: An Overview
,”
Compos. Sci. Technol.
,
64
(
2
), pp.
155
170
.
4.
Bennett
,
A.
,
1986
, “
Properties of Thermal Barrier Coatings
,”
Mater. Sci. Technol.
,
2
(
3
), pp.
257
261
.
5.
DeMasi-Marcin
,
J. T.
, and
Gupta
,
D. K.
,
1994
, “
Protective Coatings in the Gas Turbine Engine
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
68–69
, pp.
1
9
.
6.
Nelson
,
W. A.
, and
Orenstein
,
R. M.
,
1997
, “
TBC Experience in Land-Based Gas Turbines
,”
J. Therm. Spray Technol.
,
6
(
2
), pp.
176
180
.
7.
Goward
,
G. W.
,
1998
, “
Progress in Coatings for Gas Turbine Airfoils
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
108–109
, pp.
73
79
.
8.
Pint
,
B. A.
,
Wright
,
I. G.
,
Lee
,
W. Y.
,
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Prüßner
,
K.
, and
Alexander
,
K. B.
,
1998
, “
Substrate and Bond Coat Compositions: Factors Affecting Alumina Scale Adhesion
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
245
(
2
), pp.
201
211
.
9.
Itoh
,
Y.
,
Saitoh
,
M.
, and
Tamura
,
M.
,
2000
, “
Characteristics of MCrAlY Coatings Sprayed by High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel Spraying System
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
122
(
1
), pp.
43
49
.
10.
Nicholls
,
J. R.
,
2003
, “
Advances in Coating Design for High-Performance Gas Turbines
,”
MRS Bull.
,
28
(
9
), pp.
659
670
.
11.
Gleeson
,
B.
,
2006
, “
Thermal Barrier Coatings for Aeroengine Applications
,”
J. Propul. Power
,
22
(
2
), pp.
375
383
.
12.
Stringer
,
J.
,
1998
, “
Coatings in the Electricity Supply Industry: Past, Present, and Opportunities for the Future
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
108–109
, pp.
1
9
.
13.
Lance
,
M. J.
,
Unocic
,
K. A.
,
Haynes
,
J. A.
, and
Pint
,
B. A.
,
2015
, “
APS TBC Performance on Directionally-Solidified Superalloy Substrates With HVOF NiCoCrAlYHfSi Bond Coatings
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
284
, pp.
9
13
.
14.
Leyens
,
C.
,
Fritscher
,
K.
,
Gehrling
,
R.
,
Peters
,
M.
, and
Kaysser
,
W. A.
,
1996
, “
Oxide Scale Formation on an MCrAlY Coating in Various H2-H2O Atmospheres
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
82
(
1–2
), pp.
133
144
.
15.
Janakiraman
,
R.
,
Meier
,
G. H.
, and
Pettit
,
F. S.
,
1999
, “
The Effect of Water Vapor on the Oxidation of Alloys That Developed Alumina Scales for Protection
,”
Metall. Mater. Trans.
,
30
(
11
), pp.
2905
2913
.
16.
Onal
,
K.
,
Maris-Sida
,
M. C.
,
Meier
,
G. H.
, and
Pettit
,
F. S.
,
2003
, “
Water Vapor Effects on the Cyclic Oxidation Resistance of Alumina-Forming Alloys
,”
Mater. High Temp.
,
20
(
3
), pp.
327
337
.
17.
Pint
,
B. A.
,
Haynes
,
J. A.
,
Zhang
,
Y.
,
More
,
K. L.
, and
Wright
,
I. G.
,
2006
, “
The Effect of Water Vapor on the Oxidation Behavior of Ni-Pt-Al Coatings and Alloys
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
201
(
7
), pp.
3852
3856
.
18.
Smialek
,
J. L.
,
2008
, “
Enigmatic Moisture Effects on Al2O3 Scale and TBC Adhesion
,”
Mater. Sci. Forum
,
595–598
, pp.
191
198
.
19.
Quadakkers
,
W. J.
,
Żurek
,
J.
, and
Hänsel
,
M.
,
2009
, “
Effect of Water Vapor on High Temperature Oxidation of FeCr Alloys
,”
JOM
,
61
(
7
), pp.
44
50
.
20.
Déneux
,
V.
,
Cadoret
,
Y.
,
Hervier
,
S.
, and
Monceau
,
D.
,
2010
, “
Effect of Water Vapor on the Spallation of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems During Laboratory Cyclic Oxidation Testing
,”
Oxid. Met.
,
73
(
1–2
), pp.
83
93
.
21.
Pint
,
B. A.
,
Garner
,
G. W.
,
Lowe
,
T. M.
,
Haynes
,
J. A.
, and
Zhang
,
Y.
,
2011
, “
Effect of Increased Water Vapor Levels on TBC Lifetime With Pt-Containing Bond Coatings
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
206
(
7
), pp.
1566
1570
.
22.
Pint
,
B. A.
,
Haynes
,
J. A.
,
Unocic
,
K. A.
, and
Zhang
,
Y.
,
2012
,
The Effect of Water Vapor and Superalloy Composition on Thermal Barrier Coating Lifetime
, Superalloys 2012
E.
Huron
, ed.,
TMS
,
Warrendale, PA
, pp.
723
732
.
23.
Haynes
,
J. A.
,
Unocic
,
K. A.
, and
Pint
,
B. A.
,
2013
, “
Effect of Water Vapor on the 1100 °C Oxidation Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed TBCs With HVOF NiCoCrAlX Bond Coats
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
215
, pp.
39
45
.
24.
Lance
,
M. J.
,
Unocic
,
K. A.
,
Haynes
,
J. A.
, and
Pint
,
B. A.
,
2013
, “
Effect of Water Vapor on Thermally Grown Alumina Scales on Simple and Pt-Modified Aluminide Coatings
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
237
, pp.
2
7
.
25.
Haynes
,
J. A.
,
Unocic
,
K. A.
,
Lance
,
M. J.
, and
Pint
,
B. A.
,
2013
, “
Impact of Superalloy Composition, Bond Coat Roughness and Water Vapor on TBCs With HVOF NiCoCrAlYHfSi Bond Coatings
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
237
, pp.
65
70
.
26.
Lance
,
M. J.
,
Unocic
,
K. A.
,
Haynes
,
J. A.
, and
Pint
,
B. A.
,
2014
, “
The Effect of Cycle Frequency, H2O and CO2 on TBC Lifetime With NiCoCrAlYHfSi Bond Coatings
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
260
, pp.
107
112
.
27.
Pint
,
B. A.
,
Unocic
,
K. A.
, and
Haynes
,
J. A.
,
2016
, “
The Effect of Environment on TBC Lifetime
,”
ASME
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power,
138
(
8
), p.
082102
.
28.
Pint
,
B. A.
,
Haynes
,
J. A.
,
Lance
,
M. J.
,
Aldridge
,
H. L.
, Jr.
,
Viswanathan
,
V.
,
Dwivedi
,
G.
, and
Sampath
,
S.
,
2016
,
Factors Affecting TBC Furnace Cycle Lifetime: Temperature, Environment, Structure and Composition
, Superalloys 2016,
M.
Hardy
, ed.,
TMS
,
Warrendale, PA
, pp.
727
734
.
29.
Viswanathan
,
V.
,
Dwivedi
,
G.
, and
Sampath
,
S.
,
2014
, “
Engineered Multilayer Thermal Barrier Coatings for Enhanced Durability and Functional Performance
,”
J. Am. Ceram. Soc.
,
97
(
9
), pp.
2770
2778
.
30.
Nowak
,
W.
,
Naumenko
,
D.
,
Mor
,
G.
,
Mor
,
F.
,
Macka
,
D. E.
,
Vassena
,
R.
,
Singheiser
,
L.
, and
Quadakkers
,
W. J.
,
2014
, “
Effect of Processing Parameters on MCrAlY Bondcoat Roughness and Lifetime of APS–TBC Systems
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
260
, pp.
82
89
.
31.
Gupta, D. K.
, and
Duvall, D. S.
, 1984,
A Silicon and Hafnium Modified Plasma Sprayed MCrAlY Coating for Single Crystal Superalloys
, in Superalloys 1984, M. Gell, C. S. Kortovich, R. H. Bricknell, W. B. Kent and J. F. Radavich, eds., TMS, Warrendale, PA, p. 711–720.
32.
Unocic
,
K. A.
, and
Pint
,
B. A.
,
2010
, “
Characterization of the Alumina Scale Formed on a Commercial MCrAlYHfSi Coating
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
205
(
5
), pp.
1178
1182
.
33.
Lance
,
M. L.
,
Haynes
,
J. A.
, and
Pint
,
B. A.
,
2016
, “
The Effects of Temperature and Substrate Curvature on TBC Lifetime and Residual Stress in Alumina Scales Beneath APS TBCs
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
308
, pp.
19
23
.
34.
Unocic
,
K. A.
,
Leonard
,
D. N.
, and
Pint
,
B. A.
,
2014
, “
Effect of Boron on the Oxidation Behavior of NiCrAlYHfTi in H2O and CO2 Environments
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
260
, pp.
17
22
.
35.
Naumenko
,
D.
,
Pint
,
B. A.
, and
Quadakkers
,
W. J.
,
2016
, “
Current Thoughts on Reactive Element Effects in Alumina-Forming Systems—in Memory of John Stringer
,”
Oxid. Met.
,
86
(
1–2
), pp.
1
43
.
36.
Echsler
,
H.
,
Renusch
,
D.
, and
Schütze
,
M.
,
2004
, “
Bond Coat Oxidation and Its Significance for Life Expectancy of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems
,”
Mater. Sci. Technol.
,
20
(
3
), pp.
307
318
.
37.
Naumenko
,
D.
,
Shemet
,
V.
,
Singheiser
,
L.
, and
Quadakkers
,
W. J.
,
2009
, “
Failure Mechanisms of Thermal Barrier Coatings on MCrAlY-Type Bondcoats Associated With Formation of Thermally Grown Oxide
,”
J. Mater. Sci.
,
44
(
7
), pp.
1687
1703
.
You do not currently have access to this content.