The Allam Cycle is a high-performance oxy-fuel, supercritical CO2 power cycle that offers significant benefits over traditional fossil and hydrocarbon fuel-based power generation systems. A major benefit arises in the elimination of costly precombustion acid gas removal (AGR) for sulfur- (SOx) and nitrogen-based (NOx) impurities by utilizing a novel downstream cleanup process that utilizes NOx first as a gas phase catalyst to effect SOx oxidation, followed by NOx removal. The basic reactions required for this process, which have been well demonstrated in several facilities for the cleanup of exhaust gasses, ultimately convert SOx and NOx species to sulfuric, nitric, and nitrous acids for removal from the supercritical CO2 stream. The process results in simplified and significantly lower cost removal of these species and utilizes conditions inherent to the Allam Cycle that are ideally suited to facilitate this process. 8 Rivers Capital and the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), supported by the state of North Dakota, the U.S. Department of Energy and an Industrial consortium from the State of North Dakota, are currently working together to test and optimize this novel impurity removal process for pressurized, semi-closed supercritical CO2 cycles, such as the Allam Cycle. Both reaction kinetic modeling and on-site testing have been completed. Initial results show that both SOx and NOx can be substantially removed from CO2-rich exhaust gas containing excess oxygen under 20 bar operating pressure utilizing a simple packed spray column. Sensitivity of the removal rate to the concentration of oxygen and NOx was investigated. Follow-on work will focus on system optimization to improve removal efficiency and removal control, to minimize metallurgy and corrosion risks from handling concentrated acids, and to reduce overall capital cost and operating cost of the system.

References

References
1.
IEA
,
2014
, “
World Energy Outlook 2014
,” International Energy Agency, Paris, France,
Report
.https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/WEO_2014_ES_English_WEB.pdf
2.
IEA
,
2013
, “
21st Century Coal: Advanced Technology and Global Energy Solution
,” Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/International Energy Agency, Paris, France,
Report
.https://www.iea.org/publications/insights/insightpublications/21stCenturyCoal_FINAL_WEB.pdf
3.
Katzer
,
J.
,
Ansolabehere
,
S.
,
Beer
,
J.
,
Deutch
,
J.
,
Ellerman
,
A. D.
,
Friendmann
,
S. J.
, and
Herzog
,
H.
,
2007
, “
The Future of Coal: An Interdisciplinary MIT Study
,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, MA,
Report
.http://web.mit.edu/coal/
4.
NETL, 2011
, “
Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants—Volume 3a: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: IGCC Cases
,” National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, Report No.
DOE/NETL-2010/1399
.https://www.netl.doe.gov/File%20Library/Research/Energy%20Analysis/Coal/LR_IGCC_FR_20110511.pdf
5.
Iwai
,
Y.
,
Itoh
,
M.
,
Morisawa
,
Y.
,
Suzuki
,
S.
, and
Cusano
,
D.
,
5
, “
Development Approach to the Combustor of Gas Turbine for Oxy-Fuel, Supercritical CO2 Cycle
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2015-43160.
6.
Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies at MIT,
2015
, “
Kemper County IGCC Fact Sheet: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Project
,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, accessed Nov. 11, 2015, https://sequestration.mit.edu/tools/projects/kemper.html
7.
Sommer
,
A.
,
2015
, “
Institute of Energy Economics and Financial Analysis
,” Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis, Cleveland, OH, accessed Nov. 20, 2015, http://ieefa.org/edwardsport-future-coal-fired-power-not-bright-future/
8.
Allam
,
R. J.
,
Fetvedt
,
J. E.
,
Forrest
,
B. A.
, and
Freed
,
D. A.
,
2014
, “
The Oxy-Fuel, Supercritical CO2 Allam Cycle: New Cycle Developments to Produce Even Lower-Cost Electricity From Fossil Fuels Without Atmospheric Emissions
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2014-26952.
9.
Isles
,
J.
,
2014
, “
Gearing Up for a New Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle System
,”
Gas Turbine World
,
44
(
6
), pp.
14
18
.http://www.gasturbineworld.com/gearing-up.html
10.
Allam
,
R.
,
Martin
,
S.
,
Forrest
,
B.
,
Fetvedt
,
J.
,
Lu
,
X.
,
Freed
,
D.
,
Brown
,
G. W.
, Jr.
,
Sasaki
,
T.
,
Itoh
,
M.
, and
Manning
,
J.
,
2017
, “
Demonstration of the Allam Cycle: An Update on the Development Status of a High Efficiency Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Process Employing Full Carbon Capture
,”
Energy Procedia
,
114
, pp.
5948
5966
.
11.
Lu
,
X.
,
Forrest
,
B.
,
Martin
,
S.
,
Fetvedt
,
J.
,
McGroddy
,
M.
, and
Freed
,
D.
,
2016
, “
Integration and Optimization of Coal Gasification Systems With a Near-Zero Emissions Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2016-58066.
12.
Fout
,
T.
,
2013
, “
Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters
,” National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, accessed Feb. 13, 2017, http://www.netl.doe.gov/energy-analyses/temp/QGESSCO2Impurity DesignParameters__092713.pdf
13.
Korens
,
N.
,
Simbeck
,
D. R.
, and
Wilhelm
,
D. J.
,
2002
, “
Process Screening Analysis of Alterative Gas Treating and Sulfur Removal for Gasification
,” SFA Pacific, Inc., Mountain View, CA, Report No.
739656-00100
.https://www.netl.doe.gov/File%20Library/Research/Coal/energy%20systems/gasification/pubs/SFA-Pacific_Process-Screening-Analysis_Dec-2002.pdf
14.
Allam
,
R. J.
,
White
,
V.
, and
Miller
,
E. J.
,
2013
, “
Purification of Carbon Dioxide
,” Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA, U.S. Patent No.
US8580206 B2
.https://www.google.com/patents/US8580206
15.
White
,
V.
,
Wright
,
A.
,
Tappe
,
S.
, and
Yan
,
J.
,
2013
, “
The Air Products-Vattenfall Oxyfuel CO2 Compression and Purification Pilot Plant at Schwarze Pumpe
,”
Energy Procedia
,
37
, pp.
1490
1499
.
16.
White
,
V.
,
Allam
,
R.
, and
Miller
,
E.
,
2006
, “
Purification of Oxyfuel-Derived CO2 for Sequestration or EOR
,” Eighth International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (
GHGT-8
), Trondheim, Norway, June 19–22.http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.499.2329&rep=rep1&type=pdf
17.
White
,
V.
,
Torrente-Murciano
,
L.
,
Sturgeon
,
D.
, and
Chadwick
,
D.
,
2010
, “
Purification of Oxyfuel-Derived CO2
,”
Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control
,
4
(
2
), pp.
137
142
.
18.
White
,
V.
,
Torrente-Murciano
,
L.
,
Sturgeon
,
D.
, and
Chadwick
,
D.
,
2009
, “
Purification of Oxyfuel-Derived CO2
,”
Energy Procedia
,
1
(
1
), pp.
399
406
.
19.
Schmidt
,
D. D.
,
2013
, “
Simulating Aerosol Formation and Effects in NOx Absorption in Oxy-Fired Boiler Gas Processing Units Using Aspen Plus
,”
M.Sc. thesis
, Kansas State University, Manhattan, NY.http://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/handle/2097/15304
You do not currently have access to this content.