It has been recognized in recent years that high altitude atmospheric ice crystals pose a threat to aircraft engines. Instances of damage, surge, and shutdown have been recorded at altitudes significantly greater than those associated with supercooled water icing. It is believed that solid ice particles can accrete inside the core compressor, although the exact mechanism by which this occurs remains poorly understood. Development of analytical and empirical models of the ice crystal icing phenomenon is necessary for both future engine design and this-generation engine certification. A comprehensive model will require the integration of a number of aerodynamic, thermodynamic, and mechanical components. This paper studies one such component, specifically the thermodynamic and mechanical processes experienced by ice particles impinging on a warm surface. Results are presented from an experimental campaign using a heated and instrumented flat plate. The plate was installed in the Altitude Icing Wind Tunnel (AIWT) at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). This facility is capable of replicating ice crystal conditions at altitudes up to 9 km and Mach numbers up to 0.55. The heated plate is designed to measure the heat flux from a surface at temperatures representative of the early core compressor, under varying convective and icing heat loads. Heat transfer enhancement was observed to rise approximately linearly with both total water content (TWC) and particle diameter over the ranges tested. A Stokes number greater than unity proved to be a useful parameter in determining whether heat transfer enhancement would occur. A particle energy parameter was used to estimate the likelihood of fragmentation. Results showed that when particles were both ballistic and likely to fragment, heat transfer enhancement was independent of both Mach and Reynolds numbers over the ranges tested.

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