Particulate matters (PM) accumulation through a low-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (LP-EGR) path may hinder to obtain the desired LP-EGR rate and thus causes an increase of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The degree of lack of the LP-EGR rate should be detected, i.e., an LP-EGR fault, and a remedy to compensate for the lack of LP-EGR rate should be a mandate to suppress NOx emission, i.e., a fault management. In order to accomplish those objectives, this paper proposes an LP-EGR fault management system, which consists of a fault diagnosis algorithm, fault-tolerant control algorithm, and an LP-EGR rate model. The model applies a combustion parameter derived from in-cylinder pressure information to the conventional orifice valve model. Consequently, the LP-EGR rate estimation was improved to the maximum error of 2.38% and root-mean-square-error (RMSE) of 1.34% at various operating conditions even under the fault condition compared to that of the conventional model with the maximum error of 7.46% and RMSE of 5.39%. Using this LP-EGR rate model as a virtual sensor, the fault diagnosis algorithm determines an LP-EGR fault state. Based on the state, the fault-tolerant control determines whether or not to generate the offset of the exhaust throttle valve (ETV) position. This offset combines with the look-up table (LUT)-based feedforward controller to control an LP-EGR rate. As a result of real-time verification of the fault management system in the fault condition, the NOx emission decreased by up to about 15%.

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