It is anticipated that the contribution of rotorcraft activities to the environmental impact of civil aviation will increase in the future. Due to their versatility and robustness, helicopters are often operated in harsh environments with extreme ambient conditions. These severe conditions not only affect the performance of the engine but also affect the aerodynamics of the rotorcraft. This impact is reflected in the fuel burn and pollutants emitted by the rotorcraft during a mission. The aim of this paper is to introduce an exhaustive methodology to quantify the influence adverse environment conditions have in the mission fuel consumption and the associated emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). An emergency medical service (EMS) and a search and rescue (SAR) mission are used as case studies to simulate the effects of extreme temperatures, high altitude, and compressor degradation on a representative twin-engine medium (TEM) weight helicopter, the Sikorsky UH-60A Black Hawk. A simulation tool for helicopter mission performance analysis developed and validated at Cranfield University was employed. This software comprises different modules that enable the analysis of helicopter flight dynamics, powerplant performance, and exhaust emissions over a user-defined flight path profile. For the validation of the models implemented, extensive comparisons with experimental data are presented throughout for rotorcraft and engine performance as well as NOx emissions. Reductions as high as 12% and 40% in mission fuel and NOx emissions, respectively, were observed for the “high and cold” scenario simulated at the SAR role relative to the same mission trajectory under standard conditions.

References

References
1.
Gordon Leishman
,
J.
,
2006
,
Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics
,
2nd ed.
,
Cambridge University Press
,
Cambridge, UK
.
2.
Rindlisbacher
,
T.
,
2009
, “
Guidance on the Determination of Helicopter Emissions
,” Federal Office of Civil Aviation (FOCA), Division Aviation Policy and Strategy, Bern, Switzerland, Reference No.
0/3/33/33-05-20
.
3.
MacMillan
,
W. L.
,
1974
, “
Development of a Modular-Type Computer Program for the Calculation of Gas Turbine Off-Design Performance
,”
Ph.D. thesis
, Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK.
4.
Celis
,
C.
,
2010
, “
Evaluation and Optimisation of Environmentally Friendly Aircraft Propulsion Systems
,”
Ph.D. thesis
, Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK.
5.
Goulos
,
I.
,
2012
, “
Simulation Framework Development for the Multidisciplinary Optimisation of Rotorcraft
,”
Ph.D. thesis
, Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK.
6.
Lockheed Martin,
2016
, “
Sikorsky BLACK HAWK Helicopter
,” Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD, accessed Nov. 19, 2016, http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/products/h-60-black-hawk-helicopter.html
7.
Goulos
,
I.
,
Fakhre
,
A.
,
Tzanidakis
,
K.
,
Pachidis
,
V.
, and
D'Ippolito
,
R.
,
2015
, “
A Multidisciplinary Approach for the Comprehensive Assessment of Integrated Rotorcraft–Powerplant Systems at Mission Level
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
137
(
1
), p.
012603
.
8.
Goulos
,
I.
,
Hempert
,
F.
,
Sethi
,
V.
,
Pachidis
,
V.
,
D'Ippolito
,
R.
, and
D'Auria
,
M.
,
2013
, “
Rotorcraft Engine Cycle Optimization at Mission Level
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
135
(
9
), p.
091202
.
9.
Fakhre
,
A.
,
Tzanidakis
,
K.
,
Goulos
,
I.
,
Pachidis
,
V.
, and
D'Ippolito
,
R.
,
2015
, “
Multi-Objective Optimization of Conceptual Rotorcraft Powerplants: Trade-Off Between Rotorcraft Fuel Efficiency and Environmental Impact
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
137
(
7
), p.
071201
.
10.
Goulos
,
I.
,
Pachidis
,
V.
,
D'Ippolito
,
R.
,
Stevens
,
J.
, and
Smith
,
C.
,
2012
, “
An Integrated Approach for the Multidisciplinary Design of Optimum Rotorcraft Operations
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
134
(
9
), p. 091701.
11.
Linares
,
C.
,
Lawson
,
C. P.
, and
Smith
,
H.
,
2013
, “
Multidisciplinary Optimisation Framework For Minimum Rotorcraft Fuel and Air Pollutants at Mission Level
,”
Aeronaut. J.
,
117
(
1193
), pp.
749
767
.
12.
Goulos
,
I.
,
Pachidis
,
V.
, and
Pilidis
,
P.
,
2014
, “
Lagrangian Formulation for the Rapid Estimation of Helicopter Rotor Blade Vibration Characteristics
,”
Aeronaut. J.
,
118
(
1206
), pp.
861
901
.
13.
Peters
,
D. A.
,
Boyd
,
D. D.
, and
He
,
C. J.
,
1989
, “
Finite-State Induced-Flow Model for Rotors in Hover and Forward Flight
,”
J. Am. Helicopter Soc.
,
34
(
4
), pp.
5
17
.
14.
Leishman
,
J. G.
, and
Beddoes
,
T. S.
,
1989
, “
A Semi-Empirical Model for Dynamic Stall
,”
J. Am. Helicopter Soc.
,
34
(
3
), pp.
3
17
.
15.
Cheeseman
,
I. C.
, and
Bennett
,
W. E.
,
1957
, “
The Effect of the Ground on a Helicopter Rotor in Forward Flight
,” Aeronautical Research Council, Cranfield, UK, Technical Report No.
3021
.
16.
Padfield
,
G. D.
,
2007
,
Helicopter Flight Dynamics
,
2nd
ed.,
Blackwell Science
,
London
.
17.
Pitt
,
D. M.
, and
Peters
,
D. A.
,
1980
, “
Theoretical Prediction of Dynamic-Inflow Derivatives
,”
Sixth European Rotorcraft and Powered Lift Aircraft Forum
, Bristol, UK, Sept. 16–19.
18.
EUROCONTROL and IfEn,
1998
, “
WGS 84 Implementation Manual
,” European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation/Institute of Geodesy and Navigation, Brussels, Belgium/Munich, Germany.
19.
Li
,
Y.
,
Marinai
,
L.
,
Pachidis
,
V.
,
Lo Gatto
,
E.
, and
Philidis
,
P.
,
2009
, “
Multiple-Point Adaptive Performance Simulation Tuned to Aeroengine Test-Bed Data
,”
J. Propul. Power
,
25
(
3
), pp.
635
641
.
20.
Pachidis
,
V.
,
Pilidis
,
P.
,
Marinai
,
L.
, and
Templalexis
,
I.
,
2007
, “
Towards a Full Two Dimensional Gas Turbine Performance Simulator
,”
Aeronaut. J.
,
111
(
1121
), pp.
433
442
.
21.
Johnson
,
W.
,
2010
, “
NDARC—NASA Design and Analysis of RotorCraft Validation and Demonstration
,”
American Helicopter Society Aeromechanics Specialists Conference
, San Francisco, CA, Jan. 20–22, Report No.
ARC-E-DAA-TN1109
.
22.
Hamade
,
K. S.
, and
Kufeld
,
R. M.
,
1990
, “
Modal Analysis of UH 60A Instrumented Rotor Blades
,” NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA, Report No.
NASA-TM 4239
.
23.
Bousman
,
W. G.
, and
Kufeld
,
R. M.
,
2005
, “
UH-60A Airloads Catalog
,” NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA, Report No.
NASA-TM 2005-212827
.
24.
Ballin
,
M. G.
,
1988
, “
A High Fidelity Real-Time Simulation of a Small Turboshaft Engine
,” NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA, Report No.
NASA-TM 100991
.
25.
Cohen
,
J. D.
,
1983
, “
Analytical Fuel Property Effects, Small Combustors Phase I
,” NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Report No.
NASA-CR 168138
.
26.
Garavello
,
A.
, and
Benini
,
E.
,
2012
, “
Preliminary Study on a Wide-Speed-Range Helicopter Rotor/Turboshaft System
,”
J. Aircr.
,
49
(
4
), pp.
1032
1038
.
27.
Monty
,
J.
, and
Scott
,
T.
,
1985
, “
Analytical Fuel Property Effects—Small Combustors Phase II
,” NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Report No.
NASA-CR 174848
.
28.
Fakhre
,
A.
,
Pachidis
,
V.
, and
Pervier
,
H.
, “
NOx Emissions Prediction for GE T700-T6A Type Combustor Using a Physics-Based Multi-Reactor Model
,” Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK.
29.
Lefebvre
,
A. H.
, and
Ballal
,
D. R.
,
2010
,
Gas Turbine Combustion: Alternative Fuels and Emissions
,
3rd ed.
,
CRC Press
, Boca Raton, FL.
30.
Litt
,
J.
,
Parker
,
K.
, and
Chatterjee
,
S.
,
2003
, “
Adaptive Gas Turbine Engine Control for Deterioration Compensation Due to Aging
,” NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Report No.
TM-2003-212607
.
31.
U.S. Climate Data,
2016
, “
Climate Twentynine Palms - California
,” U.S. Climate Data, accessed Nov. 11, 2016, http://www.usclimatedata.com/climate/twentynine-palms/california/united-states/usca1173
32.
U.S. Climate Data,
2016
, “
Climate Denver - Colorado
,” U.S. Climate Data, accessed Nov 11, 2016, http://www.usclimatedata.com/climate/denver/colorado/united-states/usco0501
You do not currently have access to this content.