Recently, the focus has been laid on the characteristics of pollutant emissions from pulse detonation combustion (PDC). Initial studies indicate possibly high nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, so the assessment of potential primary reduction methods is advisable. The present work considers the following reduction methods: lean combustion, nitrogen and steam dilution, as well as flue gas recirculation. Since such changes in the combustion mixture reduce its reactivity and thus detonability, they can impair a reliable operation in technical systems. In order to explore the potential and limitations of each of these reduction methods, they are compared for mixtures featuring an identical characteristic detonation cell size at given initial conditions. Furthermore, building upon the use of steam dilution, a modified method to add steam to the combustible mixture is investigated. In order to avoid the strong reduction of mixture detonability by steam addition and ensure a robust detonation formation, steam is injected into the already developed detonation front. It was found that, for sufficiently even steam distribution, NOx reduction comparable to a premixed dilution could be achieved. This approach enables the realization of NOx reduction in PDC also for such conditions, for which premix dilution is not feasible. Therefore, combining the premix dilution with postshock injection offers a promising strategy to substantially reduce NOx emissions from PDC, while at the same time ensuring its reliable operation.

References

References
1.
Zel'dovich
,
Y.
,
2006
, “
To the Question of Energy Use of Detonation Combustion
,”
J. Propul. Power
,
22
(
3
), pp.
588
592
.
2.
Panicker
,
P. K.
,
2008
, “
The Development and Testing of Pulsed Detonation Engine Ground Demonstrators
,”
Ph.D. thesis
, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX.http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........87P
3.
Bellini
,
R.
, and
Lu
,
F. K.
,
2010
, “
Exergy Analysis of a Hybrid Pulse Detonation Power Device
,”
J. Propul. Power
,
26
(
4
), pp.
875
878
.
4.
Gray
,
J. A. T.
,
Vinkeloe
,
J.
,
Moeck
,
J.
,
Paschereit
,
C. O.
,
Stathopoulos
,
P.
,
Berndt
,
P.
, and
Klein
,
R.
,
2016
, “
Thermodynamic Evaluation of Pulse Detonation Combustion for Gas Turbine Power Cycles
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2016-57813.
5.
Yungster
,
S.
,
Radhakrishnan
,
K.
, and
Breisacher
,
K.
,
2004
, “
Computational and Experimental Study of NOx Formation in Hydrogen-Fueled Pulse Detonation Engines
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2004-3307.
6.
Yungster
,
S.
, and
Breisacher
,
K.
,
2005
, “
Study of NOx Formation in Hydrocarbon-Fueled Pulse Detonation Engines
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2005-4210.
7.
Hoke
,
J. L.
,
Bradley
,
R. P.
, and
Katta
,
V. R.
,
2009
, “
Emissions in a Pulsed Detonation Engine
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2009-505.
8.
Djordjevic
,
N.
,
Hanraths
,
N.
,
Gray
,
J.
,
Berndt
,
P.
, and
Moeck
,
J.
,
2017
, “
Numerical Study on the Reduction of NOx Emissions From Pulse Detonation Combustion
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
140
(4), p. 041504.
9.
Lee
,
J.
,
1984
, “
Dynamic Parameters of Gaseous Detonations
,”
Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.
,
16
(
1
), pp.
311
336
.
10.
Shepherd
,
J. E.
,
2009
, “
Detonation in Gases
,”
Proc. Combust. Inst.
,
32
(
1
), pp.
83
98
.
11.
Ng
,
H. D.
, and
Lee
,
J. H. S.
,
2008
, “
Comments on Explosion Problems for Hydrogen Safety
,”
J. Loss Prev. Process Ind.
,
21
(
2
), pp.
136
146
.
12.
Goodwin
,
D. G.
,
Moffat
,
H. K.
, and
Speth
,
R. L.
,
2017
, “
Cantera: An Object-Oriented Software Toolkit for Chemical Kinetics, Thermodynamics, and Transport Processes
,” Cantera, Version 2.3.0.
13.
Burke
,
M. P.
,
Chaos
,
M.
,
Ju
,
Y.
,
Dryer
,
F. L.
, and
Klippenstein
,
S. J.
,
2012
, “
Comprehensive H2/O2 Kinetic Model for High-Pressure Combustion
,”
Int. J. Chem. Kinetics
,
44
(
7
), pp.
444
474
.
14.
Ng
,
H. D.
,
Ju
,
Y.
, and
Lee
,
J. H. S.
,
2007
, “
Assessment of Detonation Hazards in High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage From Chemical Sensitivity Analysis
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
,
32
(
1
), pp.
93
99
.
15.
Ng
,
H. D.
,
Radulescu
,
M. I.
,
Higgins
,
A. J.
,
Nikiforakis
,
N.
, and
Lee
,
J. H. S.
,
2005
, “
Numerical Investigation of the Instability for One-Dimensional Chapman—Jouguet Detonations With Chain-Branching Kinetics
,”
Combust. Theory Modell.
,
9
(
3
), pp.
385
401
.
16.
Gray
,
J. A. T.
,
Paschereit
,
C. O.
, and
Moeck
,
J. P.
,
2015
, “
An Experimental Study of Different Obstacle Types for Flame Acceleration and DDT
,” Active Flow and Combustion Control 2014. Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design, Vol. 127, King, R., ed., Springer, Cham, Switzerland.
17.
Berndt
,
P.
,
2016
, “
Mathematical Modeling of the Shockless Explosion Combustion
,”
Ph.D. thesis
, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.https://d-nb.info/1121588107/34
18.
Hewson
,
J. C.
, and
Bollig
,
M.
,
1996
, “
Reduced Mechanisms for NOx Emissions From Hydrocarbon Diffusion Flames
,”
Symp. (Int.) Combust.
,
26
(
2
), pp.
2171
2179
.
19.
Berndt
,
P.
,
Klein
,
R.
, and
Paschereit
,
C. O.
,
2016
, “
A Kinetics Model for the Shockless Explosion Combustion
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2016-57678.
20.
Berndt
,
P.
, and
Klein
,
R.
,
2017
, “
Modeling the Kinetics of the Shockless Explosion Combustion
,”
Combust. Flame
,
175
, pp.
16
26
.
21.
Jachimowski
,
C. J.
,
1988
, “
An Analytical Study of the Hydrogen-Air Reaction Mechanism With Application to Scramjet Combustion
,” NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, Technical Paper No.
2791
.https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880006464
22.
Wade
,
W. R.
, and
Cornelius
,
W.
,
1972
, “
Emission Characteristics of Continuous Combustion Systems of Vehicular Powerplants—Gas Turbine, Steam, Stirling
,”
Emissions From Continuous Combustion Systems: Proceedings of the Symposium on Emissions From Continuous Combustion Systems held at the General Motors Research Laboratories Warren, Michigan September 27–28, 1971
, W. Cornelius and W. G. Agnew, eds.,
Springer
,
Boston, MA
, pp. 375–450.
23.
Horlock
,
J. H.
,
2003
, “Chapter 6—Wet Gas Turbine Plants,” Advanced Gas Turbine Cycles, Pergamon,
Oxford, UK
, pp.
85
108
.
You do not currently have access to this content.