The generation of particulate matter (PM) is one problem with gasoline direct-injection engines. PM is generated in high-density regions of fuel. Uniform air/fuel mixtures and short fuel-spray durations with multiple injections are effective in enabling the valves of fuel injectors not to wobble and dribble. We previously studied what effects the opening and closing of valves had on fuel spray behavior and found that valve motions in the opening and closing directions affected spray behavior and generated coarse droplets during the end-of-injection. We focused on the effects of valve wobbling on fuel spray behavior in this study, especially on the behavior during the end-of-injection. The effects of wobbling on fuel spray with full valve strokes were first studied, and we found that simulated spray behaviors agreed well with the measured ones. We also studied the effects on fuel dribble during end-of-injection. When a valve wobbled from left to right, the fuel dribble decreased in comparison with a case without wobbling. When a valve wobbled from the front to the rear, however, fuel dribble increased. Surface tension significantly affected fuel dribble, especially in forming low-speed liquid columns and coarse droplets. Fuel dribble was simulated while changing the wetting angle on walls from 60 to 5 deg. We found that the appearance of coarse droplets in sprays decreased during the end-of-injection by changing the wetting angles from 60 to 5 deg.

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