Flow instability conditions, in particular during surge and stall phenomena, have always influenced the operational reliability of turbocompressors and have attracted significant interest resulting in extensive literature. Nowadays, this subject is still one of the most investigated because of its high relevance on centrifugal and axial compressor operating flow range, performance, and efficiency. Many researchers approach this important issue by developing numerical models, whereas others approach it through experimental studies specifically carried out in order to better comprehend this phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to experimentally analyze the stable and unstable operating conditions of an aeronautic turboshaft gas turbine axial–centrifugal compressor installed on a brand new test rig properly designed for this purpose. The test facility is set up in order to obtain (i) the compressor performance maps at rotational speeds up to 25,000 rpm and (ii) the compressor transient behavior during surge. By using two different test rig layouts, instabilities occurring in the compressor, beyond the peak of the characteristic curve, are identified and investigated. These two types of analysis are carried out, thanks to pressure, temperature, and mass flow sensors located in strategic positions along the circuit. These measurement sensors are part of a proper control and acquisition system, characterized by an adjustable sampling frequency. Thus, the desired operating conditions of the compressor in terms of mass flow and rotational speed and transient of these two parameters are regulated by this dedicated control system.

References

References
1.
Spakovszky
,
Z. S.
,
2004
, “
Backward Travelling Rotating Stall Waves in Centrifugal Compressors
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
126
(
1
), pp.
1
12
.
2.
Cumpsty
,
N. A.
,
1989
,
Compressor Aerodynamics
,
Longman Scientific & Technical
,
Harlow, UK
.
3.
Cousins
,
W. T.
,
1996
, “
The Dynamics of Stall and Surge Behavior in Axial-Centrifugal Compressors
,”
Ph.D. thesis
, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.http://hdl.handle.net/10919/29794
4.
Gravdahl
,
J. T.
, and
Egeland
,
O.
,
1999
,
Compressor Surge and Rotating Stall, Modeling and Control
,
Springer-Verlag
,
London
.
5.
Emmons
,
H.
,
Pearson
,
C.
, and
Grant
,
H.
,
1955
, “
Compressor Surge and Stall Propagation
,”
Trans. ASME
,
77
(
4
), pp.
455
469
.
6.
Greitzer
,
E. M.
,
1976
, “
Surge and Rotating Stall in Axial Flow Compressors—Part I: Theoretical Compression System Model
,”
ASME J. Eng. Power
,
98
(
2
), pp.
190
198
.
7.
Greitzer
,
E. M.
, and
Moore
,
F. K.
,
1986
, “
A Theory of Post-Stall Transients in Axial Compression Systems—Part II: Application
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
108
(
2
), pp.
231
239
.
8.
Gravdahl
,
J. T.
, and
Egeland
,
O.
,
1997
, “
A Moore–Greitzer Axial Compressor Model With Spool Dynamics
,”
IEEE
Conference on Decision and Control
, Vol. 5, pp.
4714
4719
.https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jan_Gravdahl/publication/3732471_A_Moore-Greitzer_axial_compressor_model_with_spool_dynamics/links/0c9605225805022110226050.pdf
9.
Morini
,
M.
,
Pinelli
,
M.
, and
Venturini
,
M.
,
2006
, “
Development of a One-Dimensional Modular Dynamic Model for the Simulation of Surge in Compression Systems
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
129
(
3
), pp.
437
447
.
10.
Gravdahl
,
J. T.
,
Egeland
,
O.
, and
Vatland
,
S. O.
,
2002
, “
Drive Torque Actuation in Active Surge Control of Centrifugal Compressor
,”
Automatica
,
38
(
11
), pp.
1881
1893
.
11.
Strazisar
,
A. J.
,
Bright
,
M. M.
,
Thorp
,
S.
,
Culley
,
D. E.
, and
Suder
,
K. L.
,
2004
, “
Compressor Stall Control Through Endwall Recirculation
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2004-54295.
12.
Morini
,
M.
,
Pinelli
,
M.
, and
Venturini
,
M.
,
2007
, “
Application of a One-Dimensional Modular Dynamic Model for Compressor Surge Avoidance
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2007-27041.
13.
Kurz
,
R.
, and
White
,
R. C.
,
2004
, “
Surge Avoidance in Gas Compression Systems
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
126
(
4
), pp.
501
506
.
14.
Morini
,
M.
,
Pinelli
,
M.
, and
Venturini
,
M.
,
2007
, “
Acoustic and Vibrational Analyses on a Multi-Stage Compressor for Unstable Behavior Precursor Identification
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2007-27040.
15.
Bettocchi
,
R.
,
Pinelli
,
M.
, and
Spina
,
P. R.
,
2005
, “
A Multistage Compressor Test Facility: Uncertainty Analysis and Preliminary Test Results
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas. Turbines Power
,
127
(
1
), pp.
170
177
.
16.
Bettocchi
,
R.
,
Morini
,
M.
,
Pinelli
,
M.
,
Spina
,
P. R.
,
Venturini
,
M.
, and
Torsello
,
G.
,
2011
, “
Setup of an Experimental Facility for the Investigation of Wet Compression on a Multistage Compressor
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
133
(
10
), p.
102001
.
17.
Bulot
,
N.
,
Ottavy
,
X.
, and
Trebinjac
,
I.
,
2010
, “
Unsteady Pressure Measurements in a High-Speed Centrifugal Compressor
,”
J. Therm. Sci.
,
19
(
1
), pp.
34
41
.
18.
Greitzer
,
E. M.
,
1976
, “
Surge and Rotating Stall in Axial Flow Compressors—Part II: Experimental Results and Comparison With Theory
,”
ASME J. Eng. Power
,
98
(
2
), pp.
199
211
.
19.
Camp
,
T. R.
, and
Day
, I
. J.
,
1998
, “
A Study of Spike and Modal Stall Phenomena in a Low-Speed Axial Compressor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
120
(
3
), pp.
393
401
.
20.
Spakovszky
,
Z. S.
, and
Roduner
,
C. H.
,
2009
, “
Spike and Modal Stall Inception in an Advanced Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
131
(
3
), p.
031012
.
21.
Day
, I
. J.
, and
Freeman
,
C.
,
1994
, “
The Unstable Behavior of Low and High Speed Compressors
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
116
(
2
), pp.
194
201
.
22.
Day
, I
. J.
,
2015
, “
Stall, Surge and 75 Years of Research
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
138
(
1
), p.
011001
.
23.
Gallus
,
H.
, and
Hoenen
,
H.
,
1986
, “
Experimental Investigation of Airfoil and Endwall Boundary Layers in a Subsonic Compressor Stage
,”
ASME
Paper No. 86-GT-143.
24.
Inoue
,
M.
,
Kuroumaru
,
M.
,
Iwamoto
,
T.
, and
Ando
,
Y.
,
1991
, “
Detection of a Rotating Stall Precursor in Isolated Axial Flow Compressor Rotors
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
113
(
2
), pp.
281
287
.
25.
Dhingra
,
M.
,
Neumeier
,
Y.
, and
Prasad
,
J.
,
2003
, “
Stall and Surge Precursors in Axial Compressors
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2003-4425.
26.
Christensen
,
D.
,
Cantin
,
P.
,
Gutz
,
D.
,
Szucz
,
P.
,
Wadia
,
A.
,
Armor
,
J.
,
Dhingra
,
M.
,
Neumeier
,
Y.
, and
Prasad
,
J.
,
2008
, “
Development and Demonstration of a Stability Management System for Gas Turbine Engines
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
130
(
3
), p.
031011
.
27.
Dodds
,
J.
, and
Vahdati
,
M.
,
2015
, “
Rotating Stall Observations in a High Speed Compressor—Part I: Experimental Study
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
137
(
5
), p.
051002
.
28.
Galindo
,
J.
,
Tiseira
,
A.
,
Arnau
,
F. J.
, and
Lang
,
R.
,
2013
, “
On-Engine Measurement of Turbocharger Surge Limit
,”
Exp. Tech.
,
37
(
1
), pp.
47
54
.
29.
Galindo
,
J.
,
Serrano
,
J. R.
,
Guardiola
,
C.
, and
Cervelló
,
C.
,
2006
, “
Surge Limit Definition in a Specific Test Bench for the Characterization of Automotive Turbochargers
,”
Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci.
,
30
(
5
), pp.
449
462
.
30.
Fink
,
D. A.
,
Cumpsty
,
N. A.
, and
Greitzer
,
E. M.
,
1992
, “
Surge Dynamics in a Free-Spool Centrifugal Compressor System
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
114
(
2
), pp.
321
332
.
31.
Liu
,
A. X.
, and
Zheng
,
X. Q.
,
2013
, “
Methods of Surge Point Judgment for Compressor Experiments
,”
Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci.
,
51
(
11
), pp.
204
213
.
32.
Kabalyk
,
K.
,
Kryłłowicz
,
W.
,
Lis′kiewicz
,
G.
,
Horodko
,
L.
, and
Magiera
,
R.
,
2016
, “
Experimental Investigation of the Influence of the Inlet Duct Configuration on the Unstable Operation of a Single-Stage Centrifugal Blower
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A
,
230
(
3
), pp.
260
271
.
33.
Courtiade
,
N.
, and
Ottavy
,
X.
,
2013
, “
Experimental Study of Surge Precursors in a High-Speed Multistage Compressor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
135
(
6
), p.
061018
.
34.
Marelli
,
S.
,
Carraro
,
C.
,
Marmorato
,
G.
,
Zamboni
,
G.
, and
Capobianco
,
M.
,
2014
, “
Experimental Analysis on the Performance of a Turbocharger Compressor in the Unstable Operating Region and Close to the Surge Limit
,”
Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci.
,
53
(
3
), pp.
154
160
.
35.
Zheng
,
X.
, and
Liu
,
A.
,
2015
, “
Phenomenon and Mechanism of Two-Regime-Surge in a Centrifugal Compressor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
137
(
8
), p.
081007
.
36.
Huang
,
P. X.
, and
Yin
,
J.
,
2014
, “
Transient Surge Dynamics: A Shock Tube Theory and Experimental Comparison
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2014-26270.
37.
Mazzawy
,
R. S.
,
1980
, “
Surge Induced Structural Loads in Gas Turbines
,”
ASME J. Eng. Power
,
102
(
1
), pp.
162
168
.
38.
Cargill
,
A. M.
, and
Freeman
,
C.
,
1991
, “
High-Speed Compressor Surge With Application to Active Control
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
113
(
2
), pp.
303
311
.
39.
Day
,
I.
,
1994
, “
Axial Compressor Performance During Surge
,”
J. Propul. Power
,
10
(
3
), pp.
329
336
.
You do not currently have access to this content.