Increasingly stringent fuel economy and CO2 emission regulations provide a strong impetus for development of high-efficiency engine technologies. Diesel engines dominate the heavy duty market and significant segments of the global light duty market due to their intrinsically higher thermal efficiency compared to spark-ignited (SI) engine counterparts. Predictive simulation tools can significantly reduce the time and cost associated with optimization of engine injection strategies, and enable investigation over a broad operating space unconstrained by availability of prototype hardware. In comparison with 0D/1D and 3D simulations, Quasi-Dimensional (quasi-D) models offer a balance between predictiveness and computational effort, thus making them very suitable for enhancing the fidelity of engine system simulation tools. A most widely used approach for diesel engine applications is a multizone spray and combustion model pioneered by Hiroyasu and his group. It divides diesel spray into packets and tracks fuel evaporation, air entrainment, gas properties, and ignition delay (induction time) individually during the injection and combustion event. However, original submodels are not well suited for modern diesel engines, and the main objective of this work is to develop a multizonal simulation capable of capturing the impact of high-injection pressures and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). In particular, a new spray tip penetration submodel is developed based on measurements obtained in a high-pressure, high-temperature constant volume combustion vessel for pressures as high as 1450 bar. Next, ignition delay correlation is modified to capture the effect of reduced oxygen concentration in engines with EGR, and an algorithm considering the chemical reaction rate of hydrocarbon–oxygen mixture improves prediction of the heat release rates. Spray and combustion predictions were validated with experiments on a single-cylinder diesel engine with common rail fuel injection, charge boosting, and EGR.

References

References
1.
EPA, and NHTSA
,
2011
, “
Final Rulemaking to Establish Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles
,” United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, Report No.
EPA-420-R-11-901
.
2.
Filipi
,
Z. S.
, and
Assanis
,
D. N.
,
1991
, “
Quasi-Dimensional Computer Simulation of the Turbocharged Spark-Ignition Engine and Its Use for 2- and 4-Valve Engine Matching Studies
,”
SAE
Paper No. 910075.
3.
Zhang
,
G.
,
Filipi
,
Z.
, and
Assanis
,
D. N.
,
1997
, “
A Flexible, Reconfigurable, Transient Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engine Simulation for System Dynamics Studies
,”
J. Struct. Mech.
,
25
(
3
), pp.
357
378
.
4.
Filipi
,
Z.
,
Wang
,
Y.
, and
Assanis
,
D.
,
2004
, “
Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) Strategies for Improving Diesel Engine In-Vehicle Response: A Simulation Study
,”
Int. J. Heavy Veh. Syst.
,
11
(
3
), pp.
303
326
.
5.
Vibe
,
I.
, 1956, “
Semi-Empirical Expression for Combustion Rate in Engines
,”
Conference on Piston Engines
, Moscow, Russia, pp.
185
191
.
6.
Xu
,
S.
,
Anderson
,
D.
,
Singh
,
A.
,
Hoffman
,
M.
,
Prucka
,
R.
, and
Filipi
,
Z.
,
2014
, “
Development of a Phenomenological Dual-Fuel Natural Gas Diesel Engine Simulation and Its Use for Analysis of Transient Operations
,”
SAE Int. J. Engines
,
7
(
4
), pp.
1665
1673
.
7.
Amsden
,
A. A.
,
1997
, “
KIVA-3V: A Block-Structured KIVA Program for Engines With Vertical or Canted Valves
,” Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM.
8.
Jasak
,
H.
,
Luo
,
J.
,
Kaludercic
,
B.
,
Gosman
,
A.
,
Echtle
,
H.
,
Liang
,
Z.
,
Wirbeleit
,
F.
,
Ag
,
D.-B.
,
Wierse
,
M.
, and
Rips
,
S.
,
1999
, “
Rapid CFD Simulation of Internal Combustion Engines
,”
SAE
Paper No. 1999-01-1185.
9.
Reitz
,
R.
, and
Rutland
,
C.
,
1995
, “
Development and Testing of Diesel Engine CFD Models
,”
Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.
,
21
(
2
), pp.
173
196
.
10.
Bai
,
C.
, and
Gosman
,
A.
,
1995
, “
Development of Methodology for Spray Impingement Simulation
,”
SAE
Paper No. 0148-7191.
11.
Amsden
,
A.
,
Ramshaw
,
J.
,
O'Rourke
,
P.
, and
Dukowicz
,
J.
,
1985
, “
KIVA: A Computer Program for Two-and Three-Dimensional Fluid Flows With Chemical Reactions and Fuel Sprays
,” Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM.
12.
Som
,
S.
,
2009
, “
Development and Validation of Spray Models for Investigating Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions
,” University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.
13.
Payri
,
F.
,
Benajes
,
J.
,
Margot
,
X.
, and
Gil
,
A.
,
2004
, “
CFD Modeling of the In-Cylinder Flow in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines
,”
Comput. Fluids
,
33
(
8
), pp.
995
1021
.
14.
Splitter
,
D.
,
Hanson
,
R.
,
Kokjohn
,
S.
, and
Reitz
,
R.
,
2011
, “
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Heavy-Duty Engine Operation at Mid- and High-Loads With Conventional and Alternative Fuels
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2011-01-0363.
15.
Hiroyasu
,
H.
, 1985, “
Diesel Engine Combustion and Its Modeling
,”
First International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines
(
COMODIA
), Tokyo, Japan, Sept. 4–6, pp.
53
75
.
16.
Hiroyasu
,
H.
, and
Kadota
,
T.
,
1976
, “
Models for Combustion and Formation of Nitric Oxide and Soot in Direct Injection Diesel Engines
,”
SAE
Paper No. 760129.
17.
Jung
,
D.
, and
Assanis
,
D. N.
,
2001
, “
Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Cycle Simulation Studies of Engine Performance and Emissions
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2001-01-1246.
18.
Minato
,
A.
, and
Shimazaki
,
N.
,
2011
, “
Development of the Total Engine Simulation System (TESS) and Its Application for System Investigation of Future Diesel Engine
,”
SAE Int. J. Engines
,
4
(
1
), pp.
1708
1723
.
19.
Schihl
,
P.
,
Bryzik
,
W.
, and
Atreya
,
A.
,
1996
, “
Analysis of Current Spray Penetration Models and Proposal of a Phenomenological Cone Penetration Model
,”
SAE
Paper No. 960773.
20.
Kanno
,
T.
,
Zama
,
Y.
,
Kakehashi
,
N.
,
Ishima
,
T.
, and
Furuhata
,
T.
,
2015
, “
Study on Empirical Formula for Spray Tip Penetration of Diesel Spray Under High Ambient Gas Density Conditions
,” 13th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (ICLASS), Tainan, Taiwan, Aug. 23–27.
21.
Dec
,
J. E.
,
2009
, “
Advanced Compression-Ignition Engines—Understanding the In-Cylinder Processes
,”
Proc. Combust. Inst.
,
32
(
2
), pp.
2727
2742
.
22.
Hiroyasu
,
H.
, and
Arai
,
M.
,
1980
, “
Fuel Spray Penetration and Spray Angle in Diesel Engines
,”
Trans. JSAE
,
21
(
5
), p.
11
.
23.
Hiroyasu
,
H.
,
Arai
,
M.
, and
Tabata
,
M.
,
1989
, “
Empirical Equations for the Sauter Mean Diameter of a Diesel Spray
,”
SAE
Paper No. 890464.
24.
Kadota
,
T.
, and
Hiroyasu
,
H.
,
1976
, “
Evaporation of a Single Droplet at Elevated Pressures and Temperatures: 2nd Report, Theoretical Study
,”
Bull. JSME
,
19
(
138
), pp.
1515
1521
.
25.
Watson
,
N.
,
Pilley
,
A.
, and
Marzouk
,
M.
,
1980
, “
A Combustion Correlation for Diesel Engine Simulation
,”
SAE
Paper No. 800029.
26.
Kobori
,
S.
,
Kamimoto
,
T.
, and
Aradi
,
A.
,
2000
, “
A Study of Ignition Delay of Diesel Fuel Sprays
,”
Int. J. Eng. Res.
,
1
(
1
), pp.
29
39
.
27.
Wolfer
,
H. H.
,
1938
, “
Ignition Lag in Diesel Engines
,”
VDI-Forschungsh.
,
392
, p.
621-436.047
.
28.
Assanis
,
D.
,
Filipi
,
Z.
,
Fiveland
,
S.
, and
Syrimis
,
M.
,
1999
, “
A Predictive Ignition Delay Correlation Under Steady-State and Transient Operation of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
125
(
2
), pp.
450
457
.
29.
Kadota
,
T.
,
Hiroyasu
,
H.
, and
Oya
,
H.
,
1976
, “
Spontaneous Ignition Delay of a Fuel Droplet in High Pressure and High Temperature Gaseous Environments
,”
Bull. JSME
,
19
(
130
), pp.
437
445
.
30.
Sazhina
,
E.
,
Sazhin
,
S.
,
Heikal
,
M.
, and
Marooney
,
C.
,
1999
, “
The Shell Autoignition Model: Applications to Gasoline and Diesel Fuels
,”
Fuel
,
78
(
4
), pp.
389
401
.
31.
Halstead
,
M.
,
Kirsch
,
L.
, and
Quinn
,
C.
,
1977
, “
The Autoignition of Hydrocarbon Fuels at High Temperatures and Pressures—Fitting of a Mathematical Model
,”
Combust. Flame
,
30
, pp.
45
60
.
32.
Inagaki
,
K.
,
Mizuta
,
J.
,
Fuyuto
,
T.
,
Hashizume
,
T.
,
Ito
,
H.
,
Kuzuyama
,
H.
,
Kawae
,
T.
, and
Kono
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Low Emissions and High-Efficiency Diesel Combustion Using Highly Dispersed Spray With Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flows
,”
SAE Int. J. Engines
,
4
(
1
), pp.
2065
2079
.
33.
Heywood
,
J. B.
,
1988
,
Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
34.
Westbrook
,
C. K.
, and
Dryer
,
F. L.
,
1981
, “
Simplified Reaction Mechanisms for the Oxidation of Hydrocarbon Fuels in Flames
,”
Combust. Sci. Technol.
,
27
(
1–2
), pp.
31
43
.
35.
Ebersole
,
G. D.
,
Myers
,
P.
, and
Uyehara
,
O.
,
1963
, “
The Radiant and Convective Components of Diesel Engine Heat Transfer
,”
SAE
Paper No. 630148.
36.
Flynn
,
P.
,
Mizusawa
,
M.
,
Uyehara
,
O. A.
, and
Myers
,
P. S.
,
1972
, “
An Experimental Determination of the Instantaneous Potential Radiant Heat Transfer Within an Operating Diesel Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 720022.
37.
Woschni
,
G.
,
1967
, “
A Universally Applicable Equation for the Instantaneous Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Internal Combustion Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 670931.
38.
Annand
,
W.
, and
Ma
,
T.
,
1970
, “
Second Paper: Instantaneous Heat Transfer Rates to the Cylinder Head Surface of a Small Compression-Ignition Engine
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng.
,
185
(
1
), pp.
976
987
.
39.
Assanis
,
D. N.
, and
Heywood
,
J. B.
,
1986
, “
Development and Use of a Computer Simulation of the Turbocompounded Diesel System for Engine Performance and Component Heat Transfer Studies
,”
SAE
Paper No. 860329.
40.
Gordon
,
S.
, and
McBride
,
B. J.
,
1976
, “
Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions, Rocket Performance, Incident and Reflected Shocks, and Chapman-Jouguet Detonations
,” NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Technical Report No.
NASA-SP-273
.
41.
Bowman
,
C. T.
,
1975
, “
Kinetics of Pollutant Formation and Destruction in Combustion
,”
Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.
,
1
(
1
), pp.
33
45
.
42.
Lavoie
,
G. A.
,
Heywood
,
J. B.
, and
Keck
,
J. C.
,
1970
, “
Experimental and Theoretical Study of Nitric Oxide Formation in Internal Combustion Engines
,”
Combust. Sci. Technol.
,
1
(
4
), pp.
313
326
.
43.
Westenberg
,
A.
,
1971
, “
Kinetics of NO and CO in Lean, Premixed Hydrocarbon-Air Flames
,”
Combust. Sci. Technol.
,
4
(
1
), pp.
59
64
.
44.
Westbrook
,
C. K.
, and
Dryer
,
F. L.
,
1984
, “
Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Hydrocarbon Combustion
,”
Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.
,
10
(
1
), pp.
1
57
.
You do not currently have access to this content.