Current engine condition monitoring (ECM) systems for jet engines include the analysis of on-wing gas path data using steady-state performance models. Such data, which are also referred to as performance snapshots, usually are taken during cruise flight and during takeoff. Using steady-state analysis, it is assumed that these snapshots have been taken under stabilized operating conditions. However, this assumption is reasonable only for cruise snapshots. During takeoff, jet engines operate in highly transient conditions with significant heat transfer occurring between the fluid and the engine structure. Hence, steady-state analysis of takeoff snapshots is subject to high uncertainty. Because of this, takeoff snapshots are not used for performance analysis in current ECM systems. We quantify the analysis uncertainty by transient simulation of a generic takeoff maneuver using a performance model of a medium size two-shaft turbofan engine with high bypass ratio. Taking into account the influence of the preceding operating regimes on the transient heat transfer effects, this takeoff maneuver is extended backward in time to cover the aircraft turnaround as well as the end of the last flight mission. We present a hybrid approach for thermal calculation of both the fired engine and the shutdown engine. The simulation results show that takeoff derate, ambient temperature, taxi-out (XO) duration and the duration of the preceding aircraft turnaround have a major influence on the transient effects occurring during takeoff. The analysis uncertainty caused by the transient effects is significant. Based on the simulation results, we propose a method for correction of takeoff snapshots to steady-state operating conditions. Furthermore, we show that the simultaneous analysis of cruise and corrected takeoff snapshots leads to significant improvements in observability.

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