The development process of a down-sized turbocharged gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine/vehicle was partially introduced with the focus on particulate matter (PM)/particle number (PN) emission reduction. To achieve this goal, the injection system was upgraded to obtain higher injection pressure. Two types of prototype injectors were designed and compared under critical test conditions. Combined numerical and experimental analysis was made to select the right injector in terms of particle emission. With the selected injector, the effect of injection parameters calibration (injection pressure, start of injection (SOI) timing, number of injection pulses, etc.) on PM/PN emission was illustrated. The number of fuel injection pulses, SOI timing, and injection pressure were found playing the leading role in terms of the particle emission suppression. With single-injection strategy, the injection pressure and SOI timing were found to be a dominant factor to reduce particle emission in warm-up condition and cold condition, respectively; a fine combination of injection timing and injection pressure is generally able to decrease up to 50% of PM emission in a wide range of the engine map. While with multiple injection, up to an order of magnitude PM emission reduction can be achieved. Several New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) emission cycles were arranged on a demo vehicle to evaluate the effect of the injection system upgrade and adjusted calibration. This work will provide a guide for the emission control of GDI engines/vehicles fulfilling future emission legislation.

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