This paper presents the development of an integrated approach which targets the aerodynamic design of separate-jet exhaust systems for future gas-turbine aero-engines. The proposed framework comprises a series of fundamental modeling theories which are applicable to engine performance simulation, parametric geometry definition, viscous/compressible flow solution, and design space exploration (DSE). A mathematical method has been developed based on class-shape transformation (CST) functions for the geometric design of axisymmetric engines with separate-jet exhausts. Design is carried out based on a set of standard nozzle design parameters along with the flow capacities established from zero-dimensional (0D) cycle analysis. The developed approach has been coupled with an automatic mesh generation and a Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) flow-field solution method, thus forming a complete aerodynamic design tool for separate-jet exhaust systems. The employed aerodynamic method has initially been validated against experimental measurements conducted on a small-scale turbine powered simulator (TPS) nacelle. The developed tool has been subsequently coupled with a comprehensive DSE method based on Latin-hypercube sampling. The overall framework has been deployed to investigate the design space of two civil aero-engines with separate-jet exhausts, representative of current and future architectures, respectively. The inter-relationship between the exhaust systems' thrust and discharge coefficients has been thoroughly quantified. The dominant design variables that affect the aerodynamic performance of both investigated exhaust systems have been determined. A comparative evaluation has been carried out between the optimum exhaust design subdomains established for each engine. The proposed method enables the aerodynamic design of separate-jet exhaust systems for a designated engine cycle, using only a limited set of intuitive design variables. Furthermore, it enables the quantification and correlation of the aerodynamic behavior of separate-jet exhaust systems for designated civil aero-engine architectures. Therefore, it constitutes an enabling technology toward the identification of the fundamental aerodynamic mechanisms that govern the exhaust system performance for a user-specified engine cycle.

References

References
1.
Epstein
,
A. H.
,
2014
, “
Aeropropulsion for Commercial Aviation in the Twenty-First Century and Research Directions Needed
,”
AIAA J.
,
52
(
5
), pp.
901
911
.
2.
Walsh
,
P.
, and
Fletcher
,
P.
,
2004
,
Gas Turbine Performance Engineering
,
Blackwell Publishing
,
Oxford, UK
.
3.
Kyprianidis
,
K. G.
,
Grnstedt
,
T.
,
Ogaji
,
S. O. T.
,
Pilidis
,
P.
, and
Singh
,
R.
,
2010
, “
Assessment of Future Aero-engine Designs With Intercooled and Intercooled Recuperated Cores
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
133
(
1
), p.
011701
.
4.
Kyprianidis
,
K. G.
,
Rolt
,
A. M.
, and
Grnstedt
,
T.
,
2013
, “
Multidisciplinary Analysis of a Geared Fan Intercooled Core Aero-Engine
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
136
(
1
), p.
011203
.
5.
Kyprianidis
,
K. G.
, and
Rolt
,
A. M.
,
2014
, “
On the Optimization of a Geared Fan Intercooled Core Engine Design
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
137
(
4
), p.
041201
.
6.
Guha
,
A.
,
2001
, “
Optimum Fan Pressure Ratio for Bypass Engines With Separate or Mixed Exhaust Streams
,”
J. Propul. Power
,
17
(
5
), pp.
1117
1122
.
7.
MIDA
,
S. G.
,
1979
, “
Guide to In-Flight Thrust Measurement of Turbojets and Fan Engines
,” Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Neuilly sur Seine, France,
NATO
Report No. AGARD-AG-237.
8.
AGARD
,
1981
, “
Aerodynamics of Power Plan Installation
,” Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Neuilly sur Seine, France,
NATO
Report No. AGARD-CP-301.
9.
Covert
,
E. E.
,
James
,
C. R.
,
Kimsey
,
W. M.
,
Rickey
,
G. K.
, and
Rooney
,
E.
,
1985
,
Thrust and Drag: Its Prediction and Verification
(Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics Series),
American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics
,
Reston, VA
.
10.
Dusa
,
D.
,
Lahti
,
D.
, and
Berry
,
D.
,
1982
, “
Investigation of Subsonic Nacelle Performance Improvement Concept
,”
18th Joint Propulsion Conference
,
Cleveland, OH
, June 21–23,
AIAA
Paper No. 1982-1042.
11.
Malecki
,
R. E.
, and
Lord
,
K.
,
1995
, “
Aerodynamic Performance of Exhaust Nozzles Derived From CFD Simulation
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 1995-2623.
12.
Decher
,
R.
, and
Tegeler
,
D. C.
,
1975
, “
High Accuracy Force Accounting Procedures for Turbo Powered Simulator Testing
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 1975-1324.
13.
von Greyr
,
H. F.
, and
Rossow
,
C. C.
,
2005
, “
A Correct Thrust Determination Method for Turbine Powered Simulators In-Wind Tunnel Testing
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2005-3707.
14.
Hughes
,
C. E.
,
Podboy
,
G. G.
,
Woodward
,
R. P.
, and
Jeracki
,
R. J.
,
2013
, “
The Effect of Bypass Nozzle Exit Area on Fan Aerodynamic Performance and Noise in a Model Turbofan Simulator
,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH,
NASA
Report No. TM2013-214029.
15.
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Chen
,
H.
,
Zhang
,
M.
,
Zhang
,
M.
,
Li
,
Z.
, and
Fu
,
S.
,
2015
, “
Performance Prediction of Conical Nozzle Using Navier–Stokes Computation
,”
J. Propul. Power
,
31
(
1
), pp.
192
203
.
16.
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Chen
,
H.
,
Fu
,
S.
,
Zhang
,
M.
, and
Zhang
,
M.
,
2015
, “
Drag Prediction Method of Powered-On Civil Aircraft Based on Thrust-Drag Bookkeeping
,”
Chin. J. Aeronaut.
,
28
(
4
), pp.
1023
1033
.
17.
Sloan
,
B.
,
Wang
,
J.
,
Spence
,
S.
,
Raghunathan
,
S.
, and
Riordan
,
D.
,
2010
, “
Aerodynamic Performance of a Bypass Engine With Fan Nozzle Exit Area Change by Warped Chevrons
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part G
,
224
(
6
), pp.
731
743
.
18.
Hsiao
,
E.
,
Su
,
M. W.
, and
Colehour
,
J. L.
,
1997
, “
Navier–Stokes Analysis of a High By-Pass Engine Exhaust System and Plume
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 1997-2282.
19.
Speir
,
D. W.
, and
Blozy
,
J. T.
,
1983
, “
Internal Performance Prediction for Advanced Exhaust Systems
,”
J. Aircr.
,
20
(
3
), pp.
216
221
.
20.
Abdol-Hamid
,
K. S.
,
1993
, “
Commercial Turbofan Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Analyses
,”
J. Propul. Power
,
9
(
3
), pp.
431
436
.
21.
Kulfan
,
B. M.
,
2010
, “
Recent Extensions and Applications of the ‘CST’ Universal Parametric Geometry Representation Method
,”
Aeronaut. J.
,
114
(
1153
), pp.
157
176
.
22.
Kulfan
,
B. M.
,
2008
, “
Universal Parametric Geometry Representation Method
,”
J. Aircr.
,
45
(
1
), pp.
142
158
.
23.
Zhu
,
F.
, and
Qin
,
N.
,
2014
, “
Intuitive Class/Shape Function Parameterization for Airfoils
,”
AIAA J.
,
52
(
1
), pp.
17
25
.
24.
Ansys
,
2012
, “
ANSYS ICEM CFD Tutorial Manual
,”
Ansys Inc.
,
Canonsburg, PA
.
25.
Ansys
,
2012
, “
ANSYS FLUENT User's Guide
,”
Ansys Inc.
,
Canonsburg, PA
.
26.
Macmillan
,
W. L.
,
1974
, “
Development of a Module Type Computer Program for the Calculation of Gas Turbine Off Design Performance
,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Power and Propulsion, Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK.
27.
Li
,
Y. G.
,
Marinai
,
L.
,
Gatto
,
E. L.
,
Pachidis
,
V.
, and
Pilidis
,
P.
,
2009
, “
Multiple-Point Adaptive Performance Simulation Tuned to Aeroengine Test-Bed Data
,”
J. Propul. Power
,
25
(
3
), pp.
635
641
.
28.
Pachidis
,
V.
,
Pilidis
,
P.
,
Marinai
,
L.
, and
Templalexis
,
I.
,
2007
, “
Towards a Full Two Dimensional Gas Turbine Performance Simulator
,”
Aeronaut. J.
,
111
(
1121
), pp.
433
442
.
29.
Lee
,
Y.-S.
,
Ma
,
Y.
, and
Jegadesh
,
G.
,
2000
, “
Rolling-Ball Method and Contour Marching Approach to Identifying Critical Regions for Complex Surface Machining
,”
Comput. Ind.
,
41
(
2
), pp.
163
180
.
30.
Voulgaris
,
I.
,
2014
, “
Civil Aircraft Nacelle and Afterbody Aerodynamics
,” Master's thesis, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, UK.
31.
Anderson
,
J. D.
,
2002
,
Modern Compressible Flow: With Historical Perspective
,
3rd ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
32.
Celik
,
I. B.
,
Ghia
,
U.
,
Roache
,
P. J.
,
Freitas
,
C. J.
,
Coleman
,
H.
, and
Raad
,
P. E.
,
2008
, “
Procedure for Estimation and Reporting of Uncertainty Due to Discretization in CFD Applications
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
130
(
7
), p.
078001
.
33.
Klock
,
R.
, and
Baumert
,
W.
,
1994
, “
A Selection of Experimental Test Cases for the Validation of CFD Codes, Volume I
,” Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Neuilly sur Seine, France,
NATO
Report No. AGARD-AR-303.
34.
Klock
,
R.
, and
Baumert
,
W.
,
1994
, “
A Selection of Experimental Test Cases for the Validation of CFD Codes, Volume II
,” Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Neuilly sur Seine, France,
NATO
Report No. AGARD-AR-303.
35.
Lorenzen
,
T.
, and
Anderson
,
V.
,
1993
,
Design of Experiments: A No-Name Approach
,
CRC Press
,
Boca Raton, FL
.
36.
Olsson
,
A.
,
Sandberg
,
G.
, and
Dahlblom
,
O.
,
2003
, “
On Latin Hypercube Sampling for Structural Reliability Analysis
,”
Struct. Saf.
,
25
(
1
), pp.
47
68
.
37.
Hotelling
,
H.
,
1953
, “
New Light in the Correlation Coefficient and Its Transforms
,”
J. R. Stat. Soc.
,
15
(
2
), pp.
193
232
.
38.
Gunston
,
B.
,
1996
,
Jane's Aero-Engines
,
Jane's Information Group
,
London
.
39.
Mattingly
,
J.
,
1996
,
Elements of Gas Turbine Propulsion
, Vol.
1
(
McGraw-Hill Series in Mechanical Engineering
), McGraw-Hill,
New York
.
40.
Bell
,
J. H.
, and
Mehta
,
R. D.
,
1988
, “
Contraction Design for Small Low-Speed Wind Tunnels
,” Stanford University, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Report No.
NASA
CR 182747.
You do not currently have access to this content.