Hydrogen utilization in spark ignition (SI) engines could reduce urban pollution including particulate matter as well as greenhouse gas emission. However, backfiring, which is an undesirable combustion process of intake charge in hydrogen-fueled SI engine with manifold-based injection, is one of the major technical issues in view of safety of engine operation. Backfiring occurs generally during suction stroke as the hydrogen–air charge interacts with residual gas, resulting in flame growth and propagation toward upstream of engine's intake manifold, resulting in stalling of engine operation and high risk of safety. This work is aimed at analysis of backfiring in a hydrogen-fueled SI engine. The results indicate that backfiring is mainly function of residual gas temperature, start of hydrogen injection timing, and equivalence ratio. Any hot-spot present in the cylinder would act as ignition source resulting in more chances of backfiring. In addition to this, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was carried out in order to assess flow characteristics of hydrogen and air during suction stroke in intake manifold. Furthermore, numerical analysis of intake charge velocity, flame speed (deflagration), and flame propagation (backfiring) toward upstream of intake manifold was also carried out. Some notable points of backfiring control strategy including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and retarded (late) hydrogen injection timing are emerged from this study for minimizing chance of backfiring. This study results are useful for development of dedicated SI engine for hydrogen fuel in the aspects of elimination of backfiring.

References

References
1.
Salvi
,
B. L.
,
Subramanian
,
K. A.
, and
Panwar
,
N. L.
,
2013
, “
Alternative Fuels for Transportation Vehicles: A Technical Review
,”
Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev.
,
25
, pp.
404
419
.
2.
White
,
C. M.
,
Steeper
,
R. R.
, and
Lutz
,
A. E.
,
2006
, “
The Hydrogen-Fueled Internal Combustion Engine: A Technical Review
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
,
31
(
10
), pp.
1292
1305
.
3.
Huynh
,
T. C.
,
Kang
,
J. K.
,
Noh
,
K. C.
,
Lee
,
J. T.
, and
Caton
,
J. A.
,
2008
, “
Controlling Backfire for a Hydrogen Fueled Engine Using External Mixture Injection
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
130
(
6
), p.
062804
.
4.
Mariani
,
A.
,
Morrone
,
B.
, and
Unich
,
A.
,
2012
, “
Numerical Evaluation of Internal Combustion Spark Ignition Engines Performance Fuelled With Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
,
37
(
3
), pp.
2644
2654
.
5.
Verhelst
,
S.
, and
Wallner
,
T.
,
2009
, “
Hydrogen-Fueled Internal Combustion Engines
,”
Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.
,
35
(
6
), pp.
490
527
.
6.
Verhelst
,
S.
,
Demuynck
,
J.
,
Sierens
,
R.
, and
Huyskens
,
P.
,
2010
, “
Impact of Variable Valve Timing on Power, Emissions and Backfire of a Bi-Fuel Hydrogen/Gasoline Engine
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
,
35
(
9
), pp.
4399
4408
.
7.
Das
,
L. M.
,
1986
, “
Studies on Timed Manifold Injection in Hydrogen Operated Spark Ignition Engine: Performance, Combustion and Exhaust Emission Characteristics
,” Ph.D. thesis, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India.
8.
Das
,
L. M.
,
2002
, “
Hydrogen Engine: Research and Development (R&D) Programmes in Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
,
27
(
9
), pp.
953
965
.
9.
Sierens
,
R.
, and
Verhelst
,
S.
,
2003
, “
Influence of the Injection Parameters on the Efficiency and Power Output of a Hydrogen Fueled Engine
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
95
(
3
), pp.
444
449
.
10.
Liu
,
X.
,
Liu
,
F.
,
Zhou
,
L.
,
Sun
,
B.
, and
Schock
,
H. J.
,
2008
, “
Backfire Prediction in a Manifold Injection Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
,
33
(
14
), pp.
3847
3855
.
11.
Verhelst
,
S.
, and
Sierens
,
R.
,
2001
, “
Hydrogen Engine-Specific Properties
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
,
26
(
9
), pp.
987
990
.
12.
Saravanan
,
N.
, and
Nagarajan
,
G.
,
2007
, “
An Experimental Investigation on Optimized Manifold Injection in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine With Various Hydrogen Flow Rates
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D
,
221
(
12
), pp.
1575
1584
.
13.
Kahramana
,
E.
,
Ozcanlıb
,
S. C.
, and
Ozerdemb
,
B.
,
2007
, “
An Experimental Study on Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Hydrogen Fuelled Spark Ignition Engine
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
,
32
(
12
), pp.
2066
2072
.
14.
Sarkar
,
S.
,
2009
,
Fuels and Combustion
,
3rd ed.
,
Universities Press (India)
,
Hyderabad, India
.
15.
Gregory
,
F. D.
,
1997
,
Safety Standard for Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems
,
NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance
,
Washington DC
, p.
A-16
.
16.
Gas Research Institute
,
2002
,
“GRI Mech 3.0
,” Berkeley University, Berkeley, CA, accessed Jan. 12, 2015, http://combustion.berkeley.edu/gri-mech/releases.html
17.
Turn
,
S. R.
,
2012
,
An Introduction to Combustion: Concept and Applications
,
McGraw-Hill
,
Singapore
.
18.
ANSYS, 2011, ansys fluent Tutorial Guide, Release 14.0
,
ANSYS Inc.
,
Canonsburg, PA
.
19.
Heywood
,
J. B.
,
1988
,
Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
20.
Fox
,
J. W.
,
Cheng
,
W. K.
, and
Heywood
,
J. B.
,
1993
, “
A Model for Predicting Residual Gas Fraction in Spark-Ignition Engines
,”
SAE
Paper No. 931025.
21.
Kuznetsov
,
M.
,
Kobelt
,
S.
,
Grune
,
J.
, and
Jordan
,
T.
,
2012
, “
Flammability Limits and Laminar Flame Speed of Hydrogen-Air Mixtures at Sub-Atmospheric Pressures
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
,
37
(
22
), pp.
17580
17588
.
22.
Das
,
L. M.
,
1990
, “
Hydrogen Engines: A View of the Past and a Look Into the Future
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
,
15
(
6
), pp.
425
443
.
23.
Salimi
,
F.
,
Shamekhi
,
A. H.
, and
Pourkhesalian
,
A. M.
,
2009
, “
Effects of Spark Advance, A/F Ratio and Valve Timing on Emission and Performance Characteristics of Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine
,”
SAE
International Paper No. 2009-01-1424.
24.
Pulkrabek
,
W. W.
,
2013
,
Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engines
,
Pearson Education
,
Essex, UK
.
25.
Lewis
,
B.
, and
von Elbe
,
G.
,
1961
,
Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases
,
2nd ed.
,
Academic Press
,
New York
.
26.
Fieweger
,
K.
,
Blumenthal
,
R.
, and
Adomeit
,
G.
,
1997
, “
Self-Ignition of SI Engine Model Fuels: A Shock Tube Investigation at High Pressure
,”
Combust. Flame
,
109
(
4
), pp.
599
619
.
27.
Kurdyumov
,
V.
,
Fernandez-Tarrazo
,
E.
,
Truffaut
,
J. M.
,
Quinard
,
J.
,
Wangher
,
A.
, and
Searby
,
G.
,
2007
, “
Experimental and Numerical Study of Premixed Flame Flashback
,”
Proc. Combust. Inst.
,
31
(
1
), pp.
1275
1282
.
28.
De
,
A.
, and
Acharya
,
S.
,
2012
, “
Dynamics of Upstream Flame Propagation in a Hydrogen-Enriched Premixed Flame
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
,
37
(
22
), pp.
17294
17309
.
You do not currently have access to this content.