Particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to measure the tumble structure of the in-cylinder airflow in a four-valve optical gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. The tumble ratio was controlled by a flap in the manifold and a baffle in the intake port. With proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method, the velocity field was decomposed into four parts, i.e., the mean, coherent, transitional, and turbulent. The effect of tumble motion on the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of airflow and spray was investigated by calculating the shear strain vorticity. The results indicate that the flow structure can be effectively changed through the combination of flap and baffle by forming a single large-scale tumble flow with the tumble ratio three times higher than the original one. According to POD analysis, it is revealed that the large-scale strong tumble motion leads to the energy occupation ratio of the mean part greatly increase by up to 30%, while the energy transferred to the coherent part is reduced. The above process also decreases the CCV of the coherent part by 50%; thus, the CCV of the whole airflow in the cylinder can be suppressed. A single large-scale tumble increases the maximum shear strain rate up to 2400 s−1. Meanwhile, the maximum vorticity increases to about 6000 s−1 by rolling up of the airflow. The contact area between spray droplets and air becomes larger, and the momentum exchanges between them contribute to wider sprays cone angle and shorter penetration distance when the flap is closed. The statistics of the measurements illustrate that a single large-scale tumble can promote the formation of homogeneous mixture and reduce the fluctuation between multicycles.

References

References
1.
Kubach
,
H.
,
Gindele
,
J.
, and
Spiche
,
U.
,
2001
,”
Investigations of Mixture Formation and Combustion in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2001-01-3647.10.4271/2001-01-3647
2.
Heywood
,
J. B.
,
1988
,
Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals
, Vol.
930
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
3.
Liu
,
D. M.
,
Wang
,
T. Y.
,
Jia
,
M.
, and
Gangde
,
W.
,
2012
, “
Cycle-to-Cycle Variation Analysis of In-Cylinder Flow in a Gasoline Engine With Variable Valve Lift
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
53
(
3
),pp.
585
602
.10.1007/s00348-012-1314-4
4.
Zhao
,
F.
,
Lai
,
M.
, and
Harrington
,
D. L.
,
1997
, “
A Review of Mixture Preparation and Combustion Control Strategies for SIDI Gasoline Engines
,” SAE Paper No. 970627.
5.
Stiehl
,
R.
,
Schorr
,
J.
,
Kruger
,
C.
,
Dreizler
,
A.
, and
Bohm
,
B.
,
2013
,”
In-Cylinder Flow and Fuel Spray Interactions in a Stratified Spray-Guided Gasoline Engine Investigated by High-Speed Laser Imaging Techniques
,”
Flow Turbul. Combust.
,
91
(
3
), pp.
431
450
.10.1007/s10494-013-9500-x
6.
Serras
,
P. J.
,
Aleiferis
,
P. G.
, and
Richardson
,
D.
,
2011
, “
Imaging and Heat Flux Measurements of Wall Impinging Sprays of Hydrocarbons and Alcohols in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine
,”
Fuel
,
91
(
1
), pp.
264
297
.10.1016/j.fuel.2011.07.037
7.
Kim
,
S.
,
Nouri
,
J. M.
,
Yan
,
Y.
, and
Arcoumanis
,
C.
,
2009
, “
Effects of Intake Flow on the Spray Structure of a Multi-Hole Injector in a DISI Engine
,”
Int. J. Automot. Technol.
,
10
(
3
), pp.
277
284
.10.1007/s12239-009-0032-2
8.
Sadakane
,
S.
,
Sugiyama
,
M.
,
Kishi
,
H.
,
Abe
,
S.
,
Harada
,
J.
, and
Sonoda
,
Y.
,
2005
,”
Development of a New V-6 High Performance Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2005-01-1152.10.4271/2005-01-1152
9.
Ikoma
,
T.
,
Abe
,
S.
,
Sonoda
,
Y.
,
Suzuki
,
H.
,
Suzuki
,
Y.
, and
Basaki
,
M.
,
2006
, “
Development of V-6 3. 5-Liter Engine Adopting New Direct Injection System
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2006-01-1259.10.4271/2006-01-1259
10.
Davis
,
R. S.
,
Mandrusiak
,
G. D.
, and
Landenfeld
,
T.
,
2008
, “
Development of the Combustion System for General Motors' 3.6L DOHC 4V V6 Engine With Direct Injection
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2008-01-0132.10.4271/2008-01-0132
11.
Fajardo
,
C.
, and
Sick
,
V.
,
2007
, “
Flow Field Assessment in a Fired Spray-Guided Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine Based on UV Particle Image Velocimetry With Sub Crank Angle Resolution
,”
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute
,
Chinese
, pp.
3023
3031
.
12.
Shuliang
,
L.
,
Yufeng
,
L.
, and
Ming
,
L.
,
2000
, “
Prediction of Tumble Speed in the Cylinder of the 4-Valve Spark Ignition Engines
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2000-01-0247.10.4271/2000-01-0247
13.
Goryntsev
,
D.
,
Sadiki
,
A.
,
Klein
,
M.
, and
Janicka
,
J.
,
2010
, “
Analysis of Cyclic Variations of Liquid Fuel–Air Mixing Processes in a Realistic DISI IC-Engine Using Large Eddy Simulation
,”
Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow
,
31
(
5
), pp.
845
849
.10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2010.04.012
14.
Lee
,
K. H.
,
Lee
,
C. H.
, and
Lee
,
C. S.
,
2004
, “
An Experimental Study on the Spray Behavior and Fuel Distribution of GDI Injectors Using the Entropy Analysis and PIV Method
,”
Fuel
,
83
(
7–8
), pp.
971
980
.10.1016/j.fuel.2003.10.021
15.
Salazar
,
V. M.
, and
Kaiser
,
S. A.
,
2010
, “
Influence of the In-Cylinder Flow Field (Tumble) on the Fuel Distribution in a DI Hydrogen Engine Using a Single-Hole Injector
,”
SAE
Paper No.2010-01-0579.10.4271/2010-01-0579
16.
Vu
,
T. T.
, and
Guibert
,
P.
,
2012
, “
Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Analysis for Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of Engine Flow. Effect of a Control Device in an Inlet Pipe
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
52
(
6
), pp.
1519
1532
.10.1007/s00348-012-1268-6
17.
Qin
,
W. J.
,
Xie
,
M. Z.
,
Jia
,
M.
,
Wang
,
T.
, and
Liu
,
D.
,
2014
, “
Large Eddy Simulation and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Analysis of Turbulent Flows in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine: Cyclic Variation and Effect of Valve Lift
,”
Sci. China Technol. Sci.
,
57
(
3
), pp.
489
504
.10.1007/s11431-014-5472-x
18.
Khalighi
,
B.
,
1991
, “
Study of the Intake Tumble Motion by Flow Visualization and Particle Tracking Velocimetry
,”
J. Exp. Fluids
,
10
(
4
), pp.
230
236
.10.1007/BF00190393
19.
Claude
,
E. S.
,
1948
, “
A Mathematical Theory of Communication
,”
Bell Syst. Tech. J.
,
27
(
3
), pp.
379
423
.10.1002/j.1538-7305.1948.tb01338.x
20.
Chikahisa
,
T.
,
Yuyama
,
R.
,
Kikuta
,
K.
, and
Hishinuma
,
Y.
,
2003
, “
Entronpy Analysis of Microscopic Diffusion Phenomena in Diesel Sprays
,”
JSME Int. J.
,
46
(
1
), pp.
109
116
.10.1299/jsmeb.46.109
21.
Scarano
,
F.
,
Benocci
,
C.
, and
Riethmuller
,
M. L.
,
1999
, “
Pattern Recognition Analysis of the Turbulent Flow Past a Backward Facing Step
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
11
, pp.
3808
3818
.10.1063/1.870240
22.
Heinrich
,
V.
,
2001
, “
Detection of Vortices and Quantitative Evaluation of their Main Parameters From Experimental Velocity Data
,”
Meas. Sci. Technol.
,
12
, pp.
1199
1207
.10.1088/0957-0233/12/8/329
23.
Krishna
,
B. M.
, and
Mallikarjuna
,
J. M.
,
2011
, “
Effect of Engine Speed on In-Cylinder Tumble Flows in a Motored Internal Combustion Engine—An Experimental Investigation Using Particle Image Velocimetry
,”
J. Appl. Fluid Mech.
,
4
(
1
), pp.
1
14
.
24.
Peterson
,
B.
, and
Sick
,
V.
,
2009
, “
Simultaneous Flow Field and Fuel Concentration Imaging at 4.8 kHz in an Operating Engine
,”
Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.
,
97
(
4
), pp.
887
895
.10.1007/s00340-009-3620-y
You do not currently have access to this content.