Increasing durability, preventing knocking combustion, improving fuel efficiency, and reducing pollutant emission characterize the needs for modern internal combustion engine design. These factors are highly influenced by the power cylinder system design. In particular, the piston ring to cylinder bore contact force distribution around the circumference of the piston rings must be optimized under all running conditions. To accomplish this, the ring manufacturers make the ring curvature nonconstant along the circumference. Most existing analytical tools are not able to simulate the variation along the ring circumference. In order to improve the understanding of this contact distribution and provide a high-fidelity ring design tool, a three-dimensional finite element piston ring model was developed to accomplish this variation. The modeling procedure and results are presented in this work. Experiments using a commercially available ring with negative ovality were conducted to validate the model. The ring free-shape profile and the ring cross section geometries were used as inputs to the model. Typical piston ring groove and cylinder wall temperatures were also model inputs to characterize thermal influences on the ring/bore interface forces. The ring/bore conformability was analyzed as a function of the ring radial displacements, cylinder bore constraint forces and thermal load changes to the ring. The model output showed radially separation gaps between the ring front face and the bore. This analysis provides an insight to evaluate the piston ring design. Together with an optimizer, the model can be used as a ring design tool to predict the ring free shape with a specified constraint force distribution pattern. Examples are given to demonstrate the capabilities of this numerical analytical tool. In addition, the 3D ring model can be used to improve the accuracy of existing lubrication, friction, and wear analysis tools and therefore improve the entire internal combustion engine power cylinder system design.

References

References
1.
Heywood
,
J.
,
1988
,
Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
, pp.
360
365
, 729–734.
2.
Tian
,
T.
,
2002
, “
Dynamic Behaviours of Piston Rings and Their Practical Impact. Part 1: Ring Fluttering and Ring Collapse and Their Effects on Gas Flow and Oil Transport
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J
,
216
(
4
), pp.
209
227
.10.1243/135065002760199961
3.
Tian
,
T.
,
2002
, “
Dynamic Behaviours of Piston Ring and Their Practical Impact. Part 2: Oil Transport, Friction and Wear of Ring/Liner Interface and the Effects of Piston and Ring Dynamics
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J
,
216
(
4
), pp.
229
247
.10.1243/135065002760199970
4.
Richardson
,
D.
,
2000
, “
Review of Power Cylinder Friction for Diesel Engines
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
122
(
4
), pp.
506
519
.10.1115/1.1290592
5.
Sun
,
D.
,
1991
, “
A Thermal Elastica Theory of Piston Ring and Cylinder Bore Contact
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
,
58
(
1
), pp.
141
153
.10.1115/1.2897141
6.
Ejakov
,
M.
,
Schock
,
H.
, and
Brombolich
,
L.
,
1998
, “
Modeling of Ring Twist for IC Engine
,” SAE International Paper No. 982693.
7.
Dunaevsky
,
V. V.
,
Sawichi
,
J. T.
,
Frater
,
J.
, and
Chen
,
H.
,
1999
, “
Analysis of Elastic Distortions of a Piston Ring in the Reciprocating Air Brake Compressors Due to the Installation Stresses
,”
SAE
Technical Paper No. 1999-01-3770.10.4271/1999-01-3770
8.
Ma
,
J.
,
Ryan
,
T. W.
,
Winter
,
J.
, and
Dixon
,
R.
,
1996
, “
The Piston Ring Shape and Its Effects on Engine Performance
,”
SAE
Paper No. 960052.10.4271/960052
9.
Liu
,
L.
,
Tian
,
T.
, and
Rabute
,
R.
,
2003
, “
Development and Application of an Analytical Tool for Piston Ring Design
,”
SAE
Technical Paper No. 2003-01-3112.10.4271/2003-01-3112
10.
Tomanik
,
E.
, and
Bruno
,
R.
,
2012
, “
Calculation of Piston Ring Radial Pressure Distribution From Its Measured Free Shape
,”
SAE
Technical Paper No. 2012-01-1322.10.4271/2012-01-1322
11.
Tomanik
,
E.
,
2009
, “
Improved Criterion for Ring Conformability Under Realistic Bore Deformation
,”
SAE
Technical Paper No. 2009-01-0190.10.4271/2009-01-0190
12.
Tejada
,
A.
, and
Padial
,
M.
,
1995
, “
Piston Ring Technology for Oil Consumption Blow-By Reduction in Otto Engines
,”
SAE
Technical Paper No. 952237.10.4271/952237
13.
Taylor
,
R.
, and
Evans
,
P.
,
2004
, “
In-Situ Piston Measurement
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J
,
218
(
3
), pp.
185
200
.10.1243/1350650041323386
14.
Cook
,
R. D.
,
1995
,
Finite Element Modeling for Stress Analysis
,
Wiley
,
New York
, pp.
145
164
.
15.
Fish
,
J.
, and
Belytschko
,
T.
,
2007
,
A First Course in Finite Element
,
Wiley, Chichester
,
UK
, pp.
151
186
, 215–240.
16.
Belegundu
,
A.
, and
Chandrupatla
,
T.
,
2011
,
Optimization Concepts and Applications in Engineering
,
Cambridge University Press
,
New York
, pp.
261
285
.
17.
Wriggers
,
P.
,
2006
,
Computational Contact Mechanics
,
Springer
,
Berlin,
pp.
8
360
.
18.
Mierbach
,
A.
,
Duck
,
G.
, and
Newman
,
B.
,
1983
, “
Heat Flow Through Piston Rings and Its Influence on Shape
,”
SAE
Technical Paper No. 831283.10.4271/831283
You do not currently have access to this content.