In an effort to understand the effects of injection system pressure on alternative fuel performance, a single-cylinder diesel engine was outfit with a modern common rail fuel injection system and piezoelectric injector. As future new fuels will likely be used in both older mechanical injected engines as well as newer high pressure common rail engines, the question as to the sensitivity of a new fuel type across a range of engines is of concern. In this study, conventional diesel fuel (Navy NATO F76) was compared with the new Navy hydroprocessed renewable diesel (HRD) fuel from algal sources, as well as the high cetane reference fuel nC16 (n-hexadecane CN = 100). It was seen that, in general, ignition delay (IGD) was shortened for all fuels with increasing fuel injection pressure and was shortened with higher CN fuels. The combustion duration for all fuels was also significantly reduced with increasing fuel injection pressure, however, longer durations were seen for higher CN fuels at the same fuel pressure due to less premixing before the start of combustion. Companion modeling using the Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) heavy hydrocarbon and diesel primary reference fuel (PRF) chemical kinetic mechanisms for HRD and nC16 was applied to understand the relative importance of the physical and chemical delay periods of the IGD. It was seen that at low fuel injection pressures, the physical and chemical delay times are of comparable duration. However, as injection pressure increases the importance of the chemical delay times increases significantly (longer), especially with the lower CN fuel.

References

References
1.
Challen
,
B.
, and
Baranescu
,
R.
,
1999
,
Diesel Engine Reference Book
,
SAE Publishing
, Warrendale, PA.
2.
Heywood
,
J. B.
,
1988
,
Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals
,
McGraw-Hill
, New York.
3.
Lee
,
C. K.
, and
Park
,
S. W.
,
2002
, “
An Experimental and Numerical Study on Fuel Atomization Characteristics of High Pressure Diesel Injection Sprays
,”
Fuel
,
81
(
18
), pp.
2417
2423
.10.1016/S0016-2361(02)00158-8
4.
Icingur
,
Y.
, and
Altiparmak
,
D.
,
2003
, “
Effect of Fuel Cetane Number and Injection Pressure on a DI Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
44
(
3
), pp.
389
397
.10.1016/S0196-8904(02)00063-8
5.
Pickett
,
L. M.
, and
Siebers
,
D. L.
,
2004
, “
Soot in Diesel Fuel Jets: Effects of Ambient Temperature, Ambient Density and Injection Pressure
,”
Combust. Flame
,
138
(
1–2
), pp.
114
135
.10.1016/j.combustflame.2004.04.006
6.
Arment
,
T. W.
,
Caton
,
P. A.
,
Hamilton
,
L. J.
, and
Cowart
,
J. S.
,
2010
, “
The Effect of Ceramic Thermal Barrier Combustion Chamber Coatings on the Performance and Efficiency of a Small Diesel Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2010-32-0090.10.4271/2010-32-0090
7.
Luning-Prak
,
D.
,
Cowart
,
J.
,
Hamilton
,
L.
,
Hoang
,
D.
,
Brown
,
K.
, and
Truelove
,
P.
,
2013
, “
Development of a Surrogate Mixture for Algal-Based Hydro-Treated Renewable Diesel
,”
Energy Fuels
,
27
(
5
), pp.
954
961
.10.1021/ef301879g
8.
Gatowski
,
J. A.
,
Balles
,
E. N.
,
Chun
,
K. M.
,
Nelson
,
F. E.
,
Ekchian
,
J. A.
, and
Heywood
,
J. B.
,
1984
, “
Heat Release Analysis of Engine Pressure Data
,”
SAE
Paper No. 841359.10.4271/841359
9.
Chun
,
K. M.
, and
Heywood
,
J. B.
,
1987
, “
Estimating Heat Release and Mass of Mixture Burned From SI Engine Pressure Data
,”
Combust. Sci. Technol.
,
54
(
1–6
), pp.
133
143
.10.1080/00102208708947049
10.
Westbrook
,
C. K.
,
Pitz
,
W. J.
,
Herbinet
,
O.
,
Curran
,
H. J.
, and
Silke
,
E. J.
,
2009
, “
A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for n-Alkane Hydrocarbons From n-Octane to n-Hexadecane
,”
Combust. Flame
,
156
(
1
), pp.
181
199
.10.1016/j.combustflame.2008.07.014
11.
Oehlschlaeger
,
M. A.
,
Steinberg
,
J.
,
Westbrook
,
C. K.
, and
Pitz
,
W. J.
, “
The Autoignition of Iso-Cetane at High to Moderate Temperatures and Elevated Pressures: Shock Tube Experiments and Kinetic Modeling
,”
Combust. Flame
,
156
(
11
), pp.
2165
2172
.10.1016/j.combustflame.2009.05.007
12.
Prak
,
D. J. L.
,
Trulove
,
P. C.
, and
Cowart
,
J. S.
,
2013
, “
Density, Viscosity, Speed of Sound, Surface Tension, and Flash Point of Binary Mixtures of N-hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-Heptamethylnonane and of Algal-Based Hydrotreated Renewable Diesel
,”
J. Chem. Eng. Data
,
58
(
4
), pp.
920
926
.10.1021/je301337d
13.
Cowart
,
J. S.
,
Raynes
,
M.
,
Hamilton
,
L. J.
,
Prak
,
D. L.
,
Mehl
,
M.
, and
Pitz
,
W. J.
,
2013
, “
An Experimental and Modeling Study Into Using Normal and Iso-Cetane Fuel Blends as a Surrogate for a Hydro-Processed Renewable Diesel Fuel
,”
ASME
Paper No. ICEF2013-19056.10.1115/ICEF2013-19056
14.
Cowart
,
J. S.
,
Fischer
,
W. P.
,
Hamilton
,
L. J.
,
Caton
,
P. A.
,
Sarathy
,
S. M.
, and
Pitz
,
W. J.
,
2013
, “
An Experimental and Modeling Study Investigating the Ignition Delay in a Military Diesel Engine Running Hexadecane (Cetane) Fuel
,”
Int. J. Engine Res.
,
14
(
1
), pp.
57
67
.10.1177/1468087412446884
15.
Hamilton
,
L. J.
,
Cowart
,
J. S.
, and
Prak
,
D. L.
,
2013
, “
Predicting the Physical and Chemical Delays in a Military Diesel Engine Running n-Hexadecane Fuel
,”
ASME
Paper No. ICEF2013-19057.10.1115/ICEF2013-19057
16.
Rothamer
,
D. A.
, and
Murphy
,
L.
,
2013
, “
Systematic Study of Ignition Delay for Jet Fuels and Diesel Fuel in HD Diesel Engine
,”
Proc. Combust. Inst.
,
34
(
2
), pp.
3021
3029
.10.1016/j.proci.2012.06.085
You do not currently have access to this content.