Material selection for engine internal components, e.g., bearings, is becoming increasingly more complex and demanding as the operating environments become more aggressive with the introduction of new technologies for the reduction of CO2 emissions. Historically, engine bearings contained lead, which has excellent fundamental bearing properties such as compatibility (run satisfactorily under conditions of marginal lubrication), conformability (deform and accept small scale geometrical inaccuracies of the crankshaft), and embeddability (tolerance to dirt and other foreign materials) while being readily alloyed to achieve good wear and fatigue resistance. However, facing new challenges, many original equipment manufacturers have started development programs to replace lead-containing with lead-free engine components in order to comply with new end-of-life vehicle directives or anticipated future directives. For more than 15 years, MAHLE has been successfully supplying the light, medium, and heavy duty market, with premium electroplated leaded composite bearings, which are designed to improve wear resistance. Some of this market now demands a switch to lead-free materials, while maintaining or exceeding its aforementioned requirements on bearing material properties. Composites of hard particles in a softer metal matrix are in this context ideally suited bearing materials as they can be tailored to obtain the optimal mix between soft and hard properties for the individual application. Typical hard particles that are commonly used comprise of metal oxides, nitrides or carbides. In addition to higher load carrying capabilities and longer service life, new engine technology trends demand that bearings also must operate under mixed or boundary lubrication conditions without having any adverse effect on the performance and integrity of the engine system. Boundary lubrication is commonly observed upon starting the engine before the elastohydrodynamic oil film is fully established. In this state, load is carried by surface asperities rather than by the lubricant. So far, the incorporation and even distribution of the hard particles into an electroplated lead-free matrix was not achievable using conventional direct current electroplating techniques. MAHLE, therefore, has developed a patented pulse plating technique in order to incorporate hard particles into the overlay metal matrix. The refined and modified crystal structure of the resulting lead-free overlay, with incorporated hard particles, yields a premium electroplated bearing with superior wear and fatigue resistance. Corresponding rig and engine test results have been completed to support the material development.

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