A significant problem encountered in the gas turbine industry with fuel products is the degradation of fuel and fuel systems by micro-organisms, which are largely bacteria, embedded in biofilms. These micro-organisms cause system fouling and other degradatory effects, extending often to sudden failure of components with cost implications. Current methods of assessment are only postimpact evaluation and do not necessarily quantify the effects of fuel degradation on engine performance and emission. Therefore, effective models that allow predictive condition monitoring are required for engine's fuel system reliability, especially with readily biodegradable biofuels. The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of biofouling in gas turbines and the development of a biomathematical model with potentials to predict the extent and assess the effects of microbial growth in fuel systems. The tool takes into account mass balance stoichiometry equations of major biological processes in fuel biofouling. Further development, optimization, and integration with existing Cranfield in-house simulation tools will be carried out to assess the overall engine performance and emission characteristics. This new tool is important for engineering design decision, optimization processes, and analysis of microbial fuel degradation in gas turbine fuels and fuel systems.

References

References
1.
Kurz
,
R.
, and
Brun
,
K.
,
2000
, “
Degradation in Gas Turbine Systems
,” International Gas Turbine and Aero Engine Congress and Exhibition, Munich, Germany, May 8–11, pp.
173
185
.
2.
von
E.
Doering
,
H.
, and
Vincent
,
J. A.
,
1973
,
Manual on Requirements, Handling, and Quality Control of Gas Turbine Fuel
,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Tallahassee, FL
.
3.
Passman
,
F.
,
2003
,
Fuel and Fuel System Microbiology: Fundamentals, Diagnosis, and Contamination Control
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
.
4.
Giles
,
H. N.
,
2003
, “
Methods for Assessing Stability and Cleanliness of Liquid Fuels
,”
Significance of Tests for Petroleum Products
,
7th ed.
,
S. J.
Rand
, ed.,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
, pp.
108
118
.
5.
Thaysen
,
A. C.
,
1939
, “
On the Gas Evolution in Petrol Storage-Tanks Caused by the Activity of Micro-Organisms
,”
J. Inst. Petroleum Tech.
,
25
, pp.
111
115
.
6.
Hill
,
E. C.
, and
Hill
,
G. C.
,
2008
, “
Microbial Contamination and Associated Corrosion in Fuels, During Storage, Distribution and Use
,”
Adv. Materials Res.
,
38
, pp.
257
268
.10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.38.257
7.
Brooks
,
D. B.
,
1963
, “
Military Research on Jet Fuel Contamination
,”
28th Midyear Meeting of the American Petroleum Institute Division of Refining
, Philadelphia, PA, May 13–16, Paper No. FL 225/23.
8.
Wilkes
,
C. E.
,
Iverson
,
W. P.
,
Cockey
,
R. R.
, and
Hodge
,
H. M.
,
1965
, “
Microbial Contamination of Air Force Petroleum Products
,” Aero Propulsion Laboratory, Research and Technology Division, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, Technical Report No. APL-TDR-64-95.
9.
London
,
S. A.
,
Finefrock
,
V. H.
, and
Killian
,
L. N.
,
1965
, “
Microbial Activity in Air Force Jet Fuel Systems
,” Aero Propulsion Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, Research Technical Report No. AMRL-TR-65-30.
10.
Finefrock
,
V. H.
, and
London
,
S. A.
,
1966
, “
Microbial Contamination of USAF JP-4 Fuels
,” Aero Propulsion Laboratory, Research and Technology Division, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, Technical Report No. AFAPL-TR-66-91.
11.
London
,
S. A.
,
1974
, Microbiological Evaluation of Aviation Fuel Storage, Dispensing and Aircraft Systems, Air Force Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.
12.
Pitcher
,
D. G.
,
1989
, “
Industrial Case Histories of Microbiological Fuel Contamination—Cause, Effect and Treatment
,”
Int. Biodeterior.
,
25
, pp.
207
218
.10.1016/0265-3036(89)90047-X
13.
Hill
,
T.
,
2003
, “
Microbial Growth in Aviation Fuel
,”
Aircr. Eng. Aerosp. Tech.
,
75
(
5
), pp.
497
502
.10.1108/00022660310492582
14.
Rauch
,
M. E.
,
Graft
,
H. W.
,
Rozenzhak
,
S. M.
,
Jones
,
S. E.
,
Bleckmann
,
C. A.
,
Kruger
,
R. L.
,
Naik
,
R. R.
, and
Stone
,
M. O.
,
2006
, “
Characterization of Microbial Contamination in United States Air Force Aviation Fuel Tanks
,”
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
,
33
, pp.
29
36
.10.1007/s10295-005-0023-x
15.
Rogers
,
M. R.
, and
Kaplan
,
A. M.
,
1963
, “
A Field Survey of the Microbiological Contamination Present in JP-4 Fuel and 115/145 AVGAS in a Military Fuel Distribution System
,” Defense Documentation Center for Scientific and Technical Information, Fort Belvoir, VA, Report No. AD 410519.
16.
Graef
,
H. W.
,
2003
, “
An Analysis of Microbial Contamination in Military Aviation Fuel Systems
,” Master's thesis, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, Paper No. AFIT/GEE/ENV/03-10.
17.
Roffey
,
R.
,
1989
, “
Microbial Problems During Long-Term Storage of Petroleum Products Underground in Rock Caverns
,”
Int. Biodeterior.
,
25
(
1–3
), pp.
219
236
.10.1016/0265-3036(89)90048-1
18.
Hill
,
E. C.
, and
Hill
,
G. C.
,
1993
, “
Microbiological Problems in Distillate Fuels
,”
Trans. Inst. Marine Eng.
,
104
, pp.
119
130
.
19.
Gaylarde
,
C. C.
,
Bento
,
F. M.
, and
Kelley
,
J.
,
1999
, “
Microbial Contamination of Stored Hydrocarbon Fuels and Its Control
,”
Revista Microbiologia
,
30
, pp.
1
10
.
20.
Battersby
,
N. S.
,
Stewart
,
D. J.
, and
Sharma
,
A. P.
,
1985
, “
Microbiological Problems in the Offshore Oil and Gas Industries
,”
J. Appl. Microbiol.
,
59
, pp.
227S
235S
. 10.1111/j.1365-2672.1985.tb04902.x
21.
Passman
,
F. J.
,
McFarland
,
B. L.
, and
Hillyer
,
M. J.
,
2001
, “
Oxygenated Gasoline Biodeterioration and Its Control in Laboratory Microcosms
,”
Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad.
,
47
(
2
), pp.
95
106
.10.1016/S0964-8305(00)00080-9
22.
Soares
,
C.
,
2008
,
Gas Turbines: A Handbook of Air, Land, and Sea Applications
,
Butterworth-Heinemann
,
Amsterdam
.
23.
Lee
,
J. S.
,
Ray
,
R. I.
, and
Little
,
B. J.
,
2006
, “
Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in Military Environments
,”
ASM Handbook 13A
,
ASM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
, pp.
211
219
.
24.
Kirchman
,
D.
, and
Mitchell
,
R.
,
1981
, “
A Biochemical Mechanism for Marine Biofouling
,”
Oceans
,
81
, p.
537
.
25.
Stuart
,
R. A.
,
1995
, “
Microbial Attack on Ships and Their Equipment
,” Lloyd's Register Technical Association Session 1994–95, London, Paper No. 4.
26.
Melo
,
L. F.
, and
Bott
,
T. R.
,
1997
, “
Biofouling in Water Systems
,”
Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci.
,
14
(
4
), pp.
375
381
.10.1016/S0894-1777(96)00139-2
27.
Das
,
N.
, and
Chandran
,
P.
,
2011
, “
Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants: An Overview
,”
Biotech. Res. Int.
,
2011
, p.
941810
.10.4061/2011/941810
28.
Okoh
,
A. I.
,
2006
, “
Biodegradation Alternative in the Cleanup of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Pollutants
,”
Biotech. Mol. Biol. Rev.
,
1
(
2
), pp.
38
50
.
29.
Lee
,
J. S.
,
Ray
,
R. I.
, and
Little
,
B. J.
,
2010
, “
An Assessment of Alternative Diesel Fuels: Microbiological Contamination and Corrosion Under Storage Conditions
,”
Biofouling: J. Bioadhes. Biofilm
,
26
(
6
), pp.
623
635
.10.1080/08927014.2010.504984
30.
Sand
,
W.
,
1997
, “
Microbial Mechanisms of Deterioration of Inorganic Substrates—A General Mechanistic Overview
,”
Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad.
,
40
(
24
), pp.
183
190
.10.1016/S0964-8305(97)00048-6
31.
McNamara
,
C. J.
,
Perry
,
T. D.
,
Wolf
,
N.
,
Mitchell
,
R.
,
Leard
,
R.
, and
Dante
,
J.
,
2003
, “
Corrosion of Aluminium Alloy 2024 by Jet Fuel Degrading Microorganisms
,” Corrosion 2003, San Diego, CA, March 16–20, Paper No. 03568.
32.
Haeseler
,
F.
,
Behar
,
F.
,
Garnier
,
D.
, and
Chenet
,
P.
,
2010
, “
First Stoichiometric Model of Oil Biodegradation in Natural Petroleum Systems: Part I—The BioClass 0D Approach
,”
Org. Geochem.
,
41
(
10
), pp.
1156
1170
.10.1016/j.orggeochem.2010.05.019
33.
Morton
,
L. H. G.
, and
Surman
,
S. B.
,
1994
, “
Biofilms in Bio-Deterioration—A Review
,”
Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad.
,
77
, pp.
203
221
.10.1016/0964-8305(94)90083-3
34.
Passmann
,
F. J.
, and
McFarland
,
B. F.
,
1997
, “
Understanding, Recognizing, and Controlling Microbial Contamination in Fuels and Fuel Systems—A Primer
,” FQS Limited Inc., Princeton, NJ.
35.
Barsness
,
D. A.
, and
Bertram
,
N. L.
,
1959
, “
Saturation Limits of Water in Jet Fuels
,” Wright Air Development Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, Technical Note 59-287.
36.
Jones
,
R.
,
Goldmeer
,
J.
, and
Monetti
,
B.
,
2011
, “
Addressing Gas Turbine Fuel Flexibility
,” General Electric, GE Energy Report GER4061 (05/11) revB.
37.
Wentzel
,
A.
,
Ellingsen
,
T. E.
,
Kotlar
,
H.-K.
,
Zotchev
,
S. B.
, and
Throne-Holst
,
M.
,
2007
, “
Bacterial Metabolism of Long-Chain n-Alkanes
,”
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
,
76
, pp.
1209
1221
.10.1007/s00253-007-1119-1
38.
Vandecasteele
,
J. P.
,
2008
, Petroleum Microbiology: Concepts, Environmental Implications, Industrial Applications, Editions Technip, Paris, France.
39.
Leahy
,
J. G.
, and
Colwell
,
R. R.
,
1990
, “
Microbial Degradation of Hydrocarbons in the Environment
,”
Microbiol. Rev.
,
54
(3), pp.
305
315
.
40.
Shekhawat
,
D.
,
Berry
,
D. A.
,
Haynes
,
D. J.
, and
Spivey
,
J. J.
,
2009
, “
Fuel Constituent Effects on Fuel Reforming Properties for Fuel Cell Applications
”,
Fuel
,
88
(
5
), pp.
817
825
.10.1016/j.fuel.2008.10.030
41.
Eriksson
,
M.
,
Dalhammer
,
G.
, and
Borg-Karlson
,
A.-K
.
,
1999
, “
Aerobic Degradation of a Hydrocarbon Mixture in Natural Uncontaminated Potting Soil by Indigenous Microorganisms at 20 °C and 6 °C
,”
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
,
51
, pp.
532
535
.10.1007/s002530051429
42.
Hamed
,
T. A.
,
Bayraktar
,
E.
,
Mehmetoglu
,
T.
, and
Mehmetoglu
,
T.
,
2003
, “
Substrate Interactions During the Biodegradation of Benzene, Toluene and Phenol Mixtures
,”
Process. Biochem.
,
39
, pp.
27
35
.10.1016/S0032-9592(02)00293-5
43.
Zhang
,
X.
,
Peterson
,
C.
,
Reece
,
D.
,
Haws
,
R.
, and
Moller
,
G.
,
1998
, “
Biodegradability of Biodiesel in the Aquatic Environment
,”
Trans. ASAE
,
41
(
5
), pp.
1423
1430
.10.13031/2013.17277
44.
Rajasekar
,
A.
, and
Ting
,
Y.-P.
,
2010
, “
Microbial Corrosion of Aluminum 2024 Aeronautical Alloy by Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacteria Bacillus Cereus ACE4 and Serratia marcescens ACE2
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
49
, pp.
6054
6061
.10.1021/ie100078u
45.
Robbins
,
J.
, and
Levy
,
R.
,
2005
, “
A Review of the Microbiological Degradation of Fuel
,”
Directory of Microbicides for the Protection of Materials
,
W.
Paulus
, ed.,
Springer
,
New York
, pp.
177
201
.
46.
Lalucat
,
J.
,
Bennasar
,
A.
,
Bosch
,
R.
,
Garcia-Valdes
,
E.
, and
Palleroni
,
N. J.
,
2006
, “
Biology of Pseudomonas stutzeri
,”
Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev.
,
70
, pp.
510
547
.10.1128/MMBR.00047-05
47.
Alvarez
,
H. M.
,
2003
, “
Relationship Between β-Oxidation and the Hydrocarbon-Degrading Profile and Actinomycetes Bacteria
,”
Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad.
,
52
, pp.
35
42
.10.1016/S0964-8305(02)00120-8
48.
Wilson
,
L. P.
,
D'Adamo
,
P. C.
, and
Bouwer
,
E. J.
,
1997
, “
Bioremediation of BTEX, Naphthalene, and Phenanthrene in Aquifer Material Using Mixed Oxygen/Nitrate Electron Acceptor Conditions
,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USEPA Report No. EPA/600/SR-97/103.
49.
Lee
,
G. H.
, and
Stavinoha
,
L. L.
,
1983
, “
Middle Distillate Fuel Stability Characteristics: A Review
,” U.S. Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Command, Materials, Fuels, and Lubricants Laboratory, Fort Belvoir, VA, Interim Report AFLRL No. 168.
50.
Bailey
,
N. J. L.
,
Jobson
,
A. M.
, and
Rogers
,
M. A.
,
1973
, “
Bacterial Degradation of Crude Oil: Comparison of Field and Experimental Data
,”
Chem. Geol.
,
11
(
3
), pp.
203
221
.10.1016/0009-2541(73)90017-X
51.
Colombo
,
J. C.
,
Cabello
,
M.
, and
Arambarri
,
A. M.
,
1996
, “
Biodegradation of Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Natural Soil Microflora and Pure Cultures of Imperfect and Lignolitic Fungi
,”
Environ. Pollut.
,
94
(
3
), pp.
355
362
.10.1016/S0269-7491(96)00044-9
52.
Rizk
,
N. K.
,
Oechsie
,
V. L.
,
Ross
,
P. T.
, and
Mongia
,
H. C.
,
1988
, “
High Density Fuels: Effect of Fuel Properties on the Performance and Durability of the Allison T56-A-15 Combustion System
,” Aero Propulsion Laboratory Research, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, Technical Report No. AFWAL-TR-88-2046.
53.
Lefebvre
,
A. H.
, and
Ballal
,
D. R.
,
2011
,
Gas Turbine Combustion: Alternative Fuels and Emissions
,
3rd ed.
,
Taylor and Francis
,
Philadelphia, PA
.
54.
Lefebvre
,
A. H.
,
1985
, “
Influence of Fuel Properties on Gas Turbine Combustion Performance
,” Aero Propulsion Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, Research Report No. APWAL-TR-84-2104.
You do not currently have access to this content.