Amid various methods available to reduce pollutant emissions and to improve performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine, emulsified fuel seems to be promising. However, because of its different properties from diesel, a biodiesel emulsion is incompetent to provide standard diesel performance. Once combusted in a diesel engine; the proper adjustment of engine operating parameters with the presence of “micro-explosion” may amend the performance of a biodiesel emulsion run engine. In order to realize this fact, a comprehensive study has been carried out in a variable compression ratio diesel engine running with two-phase water in a palm biodiesel emulsion. The engine operating parameters studied and optimized are compression ratio (CR), injection timing (IT), and load. The water emulsions of palm oil methyl ester (WIP) with various specifications have been prepared by commercially available surfactants with appropriate HLB values. Water quantity (5% and 10%), surfactant quantity (1%, 2%, and 3%), and HLB values (4.3, 5, and 6) are the parameters optimized to attain the stable WIP by means of mean droplet diameter measurement and stability study. The optimized WIP of 5% water, 3% surfactant of 6 HLB is then tested in a diesel engine at varying CR (17, 17.5, and 18) and IT (20, 23, and 28 deg BTDC). For each of the combinations of CR and IT, the load has been varied from idling conditions to full load (12 kg) with an increment of 20% (2.4 kg) and 110% (13.2 kg) of full load. The results are analyzed in the form of performance, combustion, and emission parameters with respect to the baseline diesel run (CR = 17.5 and IT = 23 deg BTDC).

References

References
1.
Agarwal
,
A. K.
, and
Das
,
L. M.
,
2001
, “
Biodiesel Development and Characterization for Use as a Fuel in Compression Ignition Engines
,”
ASME J. Gas Turbines Power
,
123
(2), pp.
440
447
.10.1115/1.1364522
2.
Yoon
,
S. H.
,
Hwang
,
J. W.
, and
Lee
,
C. S.
,
2010
, “
Effect of Injection Strategy on the Combustion and Exhaust Emission Characteristics of a Biodiesel-Ethanol Blend in a DI Diesel Engine
,”
ASME J. Gas Turbines Power
,
132
(9), p.
094503
.10.1115/1.4000609
3.
Chokri
,
B.
,
Ridha
,
E.
,
Rachid
,
S.
, and
Jamel
,
B.
,
2012
, “
Experimental Study of a Diesel Engine Performance Running on Waste Vegetable Oil Biodiesel Blend
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
134(3)
, p.
032202
.10.1115/1.4006655
4.
Moscherosch
,
B. W.
,
Polonowski
,
C. J.
,
Miers
,
S. A.
, and
Naber
,
J. D.
,
2010
, “
Combustion and Emissions Characterization of Soy Methyl Ester Biodiesel Blends in an Automotive Turbocharged Diesel Engine
,”
ASME J. Gas Turbines Power
,
132
(9), p.
092806
.10.1115/1.4000607
5.
Bousbaa
,
H.
,
Sary
,
A.
,
Tazerout
,
M.
, and
Liazid
,
A.
,
2012
, “
Investigations on a Compression Ignition Engine Using Animal Fats and Vegetable Oil as Fuels
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
134
(2), p.
022202
.10.1115/1.4005660
6.
Monyem
,
A.
, and
Gerpen
,
J. H. V.
,
2001
, “
The Effect of Biodiesel Oxidation on Engine Performance and Emissions
,”
Biomass Bioenergy
,
20
, pp.
317
325
.10.1016/S0961-9534(00)00095-7
7.
Subramanian
,
K. A. A.
,
2011
, “
A Comparison of Water–Diesel Emulsion and Timed Injection of Water Into the Intake Manifold of a Diesel Engine for Simultaneous Control of NO and Smoke Emissions
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
52
(2), pp.
849
857
.10.1016/j.enconman.2010.08.010
8.
Senthil Kumar
,
M.
,
Kerihuel
,
A.
,
Bellettre
,
J.
, and
Tazerout
,
M.
,
2006
, “
A Comparative Study of Different Methods of Using Animal Fat as a Fuel in a Compression Ignition Engine
,”
ASME J. Gas Turbines Power
,
128
(4), pp.
907
914
.10.1115/1.2180278
9.
Crookes
,
R. J.
,
Kiannejad
,
F.
, and
Nazha
,
M. A. A.
,
1997
, “
Systematic Assessment of Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels and Emulsions With Water for Use as Diesel Engine Fuels
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
38
, pp.
1785
1795
.10.1016/S0196-8904(96)00202-6
10.
Abu-Zaid
,
M.
,
2004
, “
Performance of Single Cylinder, Direct Injection Diesel Engine Using Water Fuel Emulsions
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
45
(
5
), pp.
697
705
.10.1016/S0196-8904(03)00179-1
11.
Murayama
,
T.
,
Tsukahara
,
M.
,
Morishima
,
Y.
, and
Miyamoto
,
N.
,
1978
, “
Experimental Reduction in NOx, Smoke and BSFC in a Diesel Engine Using Uniquely Produced Water (0–80%) to Fuel Emulsion
,”
SAE
Paper No. 780224.10.4271/780224
12.
Song
,
K. H.
,
Lee
,
Y. L.
, and
Litzinger
,
T. A.
,
2000
, “
Effects of Emulsified Fuels on Soot Evolution in an Optically-Accessible DI Diesel Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2000-01-2794.10.4271/2000-01-2794
13.
Nademm
,
M.
,
Rangkuti
,
C.
,
Anuar
,
K.
,
Haq
,
M. R. U.
,
Tan
,
I. B.
, and
Shah
,
S. S.
,
2006
, “
Diesel Engine Performance and Emission Evaluation Using Emulsified Fuels Stabilized by Conventional and Gemini Surfactants
,”
Fuel
,
85
(
14–15
), pp.
2111
2119
.10.1016/j.fuel.2006.03.013
14.
Sawa
,
N.
, and
Kajitani
,
S.
,
1992
, “
Physical Properties of Emulsion Fuel (Water–Oil-Type) and Its Effect on Engine Performance Under Transient Operation
,”
SAE
Paper No. 920198.10.4271/920198
15.
Lin
,
C.-Y.
, and
Chen
,
L.-W.
,
2006
, “
Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics of Three-Phase Diesel Emulsions Prepared by an Ultrasonic Emulsification Method
,”
Fuel
,
85
(
5–6
), pp.
593
600
.10.1016/j.fuel.2005.09.007
16.
Armas
,
O.
,
Ballesteros
,
R.
,
Martos
,
F. J.
, and
Agudelo
,
J. R.
,
2005
, “
Characterization of Light Duty Diesel Engine Pollutant Emissions Using Water-Emulsified Fuel
,”
Fuel
,
84
(
7–8
), pp.
1011
1018
.10.1016/j.fuel.2004.11.015
17.
Subramanian
,
K. A.
,
2011
, “
A Comparison of Water–Diesel Emulsion and Timed Injection of Water Into the Intake Manifold of a Diesel Engine for Simultaneous Control of NO and Smoke Emissions
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
52
(
2
), pp.
849
857
.10.1016/j.enconman.2010.08.010
18.
Sadhik Basha
,
J.
, and
Anand
,
R. B.
,
2011
, “
An Experimental Investigation in a Diesel Engine Using Carbon Nanotubes Blended Water–Diesel Emulsion Fuel
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A, J. Power Energy
,
225
(
3
), pp.
279
288
.10.1177/2041296710394247
19.
SadhikBasha
,
J.
, and
Anand
,
R. B.
,
2011
, “
An Experimental Study in a CI Engine Using Nano-Additive Blended Water–Diesel Emulsion Fuel
,”
Int. J. Green Energy
,
8
(
3
), pp.
332
348
.10.1080/15435075.2011.557844
20.
Ashok
,
M. P.
, and
Saravanan
,
C. G.
,
2008
, “
Combustion Characteristics of Compression Engine Driven by Emulsified Fuel Under Various Fuel Injection Angles
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
129
(
4
), pp.
325
331
.10.1115/1.2790994
21.
Ashok
,
M. P.
,
2011
, “
Effect of Best Emulsified Fuel: With and Without Water Addition for the Reduction of Automobile CO and NOx Emissions in Human Life
,”
Int. J. Sustainable Energy
, pp.
1
9
.10.1080/1478646X.2011.587011
22.
Senthil Kumar
,
M.
,
Kerihuel
,
A.
,
Bellettre
,
J.
, and
Tazerout
,
M.
,
2005
, “
Effect of Water and Methanol Fractions on the Performance of a CI Engine Using Animal Fat Emulsions as Fuel
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A, J. Power Energy
,
219
(
7
), pp.
583
592
.10.1243/095765005X31243
23.
Ashok
,
M. P.
,
2011
, “
Identification of Best Additive Using the Selected Ratio of Ethanol–Diesel-Based Emulsified Fuel
,”
Int. J. Sustainable Energy
, pp.
1
10
.10.1080/1478646X.2011.556736
24.
Mura
,
E.
,
Massoli
,
P.
,
Josset
,
C.
,
Loubar
,
K.
, and
Bellettre
,
J.
,
2012
, “
Study of the Micro-Explosion Temperature of Water in Oil Emulsion Droplets During the Leidenfrost Effect
,”
Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci.
,
43
, pp.
63
70
.10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2012.03.027
25.
Husnawan
,
M.
,
Masjuki
,
H. H.
,
Mahlia
,
T. M. I.
, and
Saifullah
,
M. G.
,
2009
, “
Thermal Analysis of Cylinder Head Carbon Deposits From Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fueled by Palm Oil–Diesel Fuel Emulsions
,”
Appl. Energy
,
86
(
10
), pp.
2107
2113
.10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.12.031
26.
Barnaud
,
F.
,
Schmelze
,
P.
, and
Schulz
,
P.
,
2001
, “
AQUAZOLE™: An Original Emulsified Water–Diesel Fuel for Heavy-Duty Applications
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2001-01-1861.10.4271/2001-01-1861
27.
Lin
,
C.-Y.
, and
Lin
,
S.-A.
,
2007
, “
Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Three-Phase Emulsion of Biodiesel Produced by Peroxidation
,”
Fuel Process. Technol.
,
88
, pp.
35
41
.10.1016/j.fuproc.2006.07.008
28.
FAO
,
2008
, “
The State of Food and Agriculture 2008, Biofuels: Prospects, Risks and Opportunities
,”
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
,
Rome, Italy
.
29.
Lin
,
C.-Y.
, and
Lin
,
S.-A.
,
2007
, “
Effects of Emulsification Variables on Fuel Properties of Two- and Three-Phase Biodiesel Emulsions
,”
Fuel
,
86
, pp.
210
217
.10.1016/j.fuel.2006.06.007
30.
Griffin
,
W. C.
,
1949
, “
Classification of Surface-Active Agents by HLB
,”
J. Soc. Cosm. Chem.
,
1
, pp.
311
320
.
31.
Lin.
C.-Y.
, and
Chen
,
L.-W.
,
2006
, “
Emulsification Characteristics of Three-and Two-Phase Emulsions Prepared by the Ultrasonic Emulsification Method
,”
Fuel Process. Technol.
,
87
(
4
), pp.
309
317
.10.1016/j.fuproc.2005.08.014
32.
Becher
,
P.
,
1965
,
Emulsions: Theory and Practice
,
2nd ed.
,
Chemical Rubber Co.
,
Cleveland, OH
.
33.
Lin
,
C.-Y.
, and
Wang
,
K.-H.
,
2003
, “
The Fuel Properties of Three-Phase Emulsions as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines
,”
Fuel
,
82
, pp.
1367
1375
.10.1016/S0016-2361(03)00021-8
34.
Debnath
,
B. K.
,
Saha
,
U. K.
, and
Sahoo
,
N.
,
2011
, “
Effect of Compression Ratio on the Performance Characteristics of a Palm Oil Methyl Ester Run Diesel Engine
,”
Proceedings of ASME 2011 IMECE Energy and Water Scarcity
, Denver, CO, November 11–17,
ASME
Paper No. IMECE2010-65135.10.1115/IMECE2011-65135
35.
Debnath
,
B. K.
,
Sahoo
,
N.
, and
Saha
,
U. K.
,
2012
, “
Experimental Analysis of Emulsified Palm Oil Methyl Ester Towards Alternative Diesel Fuel
,”
Proceedings of ASME 2012 Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis
, Nantes, France, July 2–4,
ASME
Paper No. ESDA2012-82033.10.1115/ESDA2012-82033
36.
Debnath
,
B. K.
,
Sahoo
,
N.
, and
Saha
,
U. K.
,
2013
, “
Thermodynamic Analysis of a Variable Compression Ratio Diesel Engine Running With Palm Oil Methyl Ester
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
65
, pp.
147
154
.10.1016/j.enconman.2012.07.016
37.
Moffat
,
R. J.
,
1985
, “
Using Uncertainty Analysis in Planning of an Experiment
,”
ASME J. Fluids Engineering
,
107
, pp. 173–178.10.1115/1.3242452
38.
Sahoo
,
B. B.
,
Saha
,
U. K.
, and
Sahoo
,
N.
,
2011
, “
Effect of Load Level on the Performance of a Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Syngas Fuels With Varying H2/CO Content
,”
ASME J. Gas Turbines Power
,
133
(12), p.
122802
.10.1115/1.4003956
39.
Heywood
,
J. B.
,
1988
,
Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals
,
A.
Duffy
and
J. M.
Moms
, eds.,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
40.
Lin
,
C.-Y.
, and
Chen
,
L.-W.
,
2008
, “
Comparison of Fuel Properties and Emission Characteristics of Two- and Three-Phase Emulsions Prepared by Ultrasonically Vibrating and Mechanically Homogenizing Emulsification Methods
,”
Fuel
,
87
(
10–11
), pp.
2154
2161
.10.1016/j.fuel.2007.12.017
41.
Jindal
,
S.
,
Nandwana
,
B. P.
,
Rathore
,
N. S.
, and
Vashistha
,
V.
,
2010
, “
Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Compression Ratio and Injection Pressure in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Running on Jatropha Methyl Ester
,”
Appl. Thermal Eng.
,
30
(
5
), pp.
442
448
.10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2009.10.004
42.
Park
,
J. W.
,
Huh
,
K. Y.
, and
Park
,
K. H.
,
2000
, “
Experimental Study on the Combustion Characteristics of Emulsified Diesel in a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, J. Automob. Eng.
,
214
(
5
), pp.
579
586
.10.1243/0954407001527862
43.
Park
,
J. W.
,
Huh
,
K. Y.
, and
Lee
,
J. H.
,
2001
, “
Reduction of NOx, Smoke and Brake Specific Fuel Consumption With Optimal Injection Timing and Emulsion Ratio of Water-Emulsified Diesel
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, J. Automob. Eng.
,
215
(
1
), pp.
83
93
.10.1243/0954407011525476
44.
Benjumea
,
P.
,
Agudelo
,
J.
, and
Agudelo
,
A.
,
2009
, “
Effect of Altitude and Palm Oil Biodiesel Fuelling on the Performance and Combustion Characteristics of a HSDI Diesel Engine
,”
Fuel
,
88
(
4
), pp.
725
731
.10.1016/j.fuel.2008.10.011
45.
Bittle
,
J. A.
,
Younger
,
J. K.
, and
Jacobs
,
T. J.
,
2010
, “
Biodiesel Effects on Influencing Parameters of Brake Fuel Conversion Efficiency in a Medium Duty Diesel Engine
,”
ASME J. Gas Turbines Power
,
132
(12), p.
122801
.10.1115/1.4001086
46.
Roy
,
M. M.
,
2009
, “
Effect of Fuel Injection Timing and Injection Pressure on Combustion and Odorous Emissions in DI Diesel Engines
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
131
(
3
), p.
032201
.10.1115/1.3185346
47.
Aziz
,
A. A.
,
Said
,
M. F.
,
Awang
,
M. A.
, and
Said
,
M.
,
2006
, “
The Effects of Neutralized Palm Oil Methyl Esters (NPOME) on Performance and Emission of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine
,”
Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Natural Resources Engineering and Technology
, Putrajaya, Malaysia, July 24–26.
48.
Owen
,
K.
, and
Coley
,
T.
,
1995
,
Automotive Fuels Reference Book
,
2nd ed.
,
Society of Automotive Engineers Inc.
, Warrendale, PA.
49.
Kadota
,
T.
, and
Yamasaki
,
H.
,
2002
, “
Recent Advances in the Combustion of Water Fuel Emulsion
,”
Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.
,
28
(
5
), pp.
385
404
.10.1016/S0360-1285(02)00005-9
50.
Sequera
,
A. J.
,
Parthasarathy
,
R. N.
, and
Gollahalli
,
S. R.
,
2011
, “
Effects of Fuel Injection Timing in the Combustion of Biofuels in a Diesel Engine at Partial Loads
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
133
(
2
), p.
022203
.10.1115/1.4003808
51.
Abd Alla
,
G. H.
,
Soliman
,
H. A.
,
Badr
,
O. A.
, and
AbdRabbo
,
M. F.
,
2002
, “
Effect of Injection Timing on the Performance of a Dual Fuel Engine
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
43
(
2
), pp.
269
277
.10.1016/S0196-8904(00)00168-0
You do not currently have access to this content.