The synthetic fuel industry is poised to experience large-scale growth and profoundly affect current aviation fuel infrastructure. New candidate technologies, such as Camelina oil-derived synthetic fuel have been demonstrated to not only provide satisfactory quasi drop-in characteristics for conventional fuels, but in life cycle analysis studies have also been shown to potentially offer positive improvements relative to conventional feedstocks with respect to economic, environmental, and land use considerations. As part of a multiyear study at the Royal Military College of Canada to evaluate combustion related parameters of fuel additives and alternative fuels for gas turbine applications, a Camelina-derived synthetic fuel blend was assessed to determine potential combustion related benefits as compared to conventional and other synthetic blends. The Combustion Chamber Sector Rig (CCSR) which houses a Rolls Royce T-56-A-15 combustion section was utilized for the evaluation of emissions and deposits. Following combustion testing, several combustion system components, including the combustion chamber, fuel nozzle, and igniter plug were analyzed for relative levels of deposit build-up. As with other Fischer Tropsch derived synthetic fuels, there were positive benefits found with Camelina blends in terms of emissions performance and deposit production tendencies.

References

References
1.
ASTM D7566-11a
Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons
.
2.
Corporan
,
E.
,
DeWitt
,
M.
,
Belovich
,
V.
,
Pawlik
,
R.
,
Lynch
,
A.
,
Gord
,
J.
, and
Meyer
,
T.
,
2007
, “
Emissions Characteristics of a Turbine Engine and Research Combustor Burning a Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel
,”
Energy and Fuels
,
21
(5), pp.
2615
2626
.10.1021/ef070015j
3.
Dewitt
,
M. J.
,
Corporan
,
E.
,
Graham
,
J.
, and
Minus
,
D.
,
2008
, “
Effects of Aromatic Type and Concentration in Fischer-Tropsch Fuel on Emissions Production and Material Compatibility
,”
Energy and Fuels
,
22
(4), pp.
2411
2418
.10.1021/ef8001179
4.
Shonnard
,
D. R.
,
Williams
,
L.
, and
Kalnes
,
T. N.
,
2010
, “
Camelina-Derived Jet Fuel and Diesel: Sustainable Advanced Biofuels
,”
Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy
,
29
(
3
), pp.
382
392
.10.1002/ep.10461
5.
Pucher
,
G.
,
Allan
,
W.
,
LaViolette
,
M.
, and
Poitras
,
P.
, “
Emissions From a Gas Turbine Sector Rig Operated With Synthetic Aviation and Biodiesel Fuel
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
133
(11), p.
111502
.10.1115/1.4002844
6.
Speight
,
J. G.
,
2008
,
Synthetic Fuels Handbook—Properties, Process and Performance
,
McGraw Hill, New York
, Chap. 1.
7.
Moses
,
C.
, and
Roets
,
P.
,
2009
, “
Properties, Characteristics, and Combustion Performance of Sasol Fully Synthetic Fuel
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
131
(4), p.
041502
.10.1115/1.3028234
8.
Hermann
,
F.
,
Klingmann
,
J.
,
Gabrielsson
,
R.
,
Joergen
,
P.
,
Olsson
,
J.
, and
Owrand
,
F.
,
2006
, “
Chemical Analysis of Combustion Products From a High Pressure Gas Turbine Combustor Rig Fueled by Jet A-1 and a Fischer-Tropsch-Based Fuel
,”
Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2006
,
Barcelona, Spain
, May 8-11,
ASME
Paper No. GT2006-90600.10.1115/GT2006-90600
9.
Kahandawala
,
M.
,
Dewitt
,
M.
,
Corporan
,
E.
, and
Sidhu
,
S.
,
2008
, “
Ignition and Emission Characteristics of Surrogate and Practical Jet Fuels
,”
Energy and Fuels
,
22
(6), pp.
3673
3679
.10.1021/ef800303a
10.
Hileman
,
J.
,
Wong
,
H.
,
Oritz
,
D.
,
Brown
,
N.
,
Maurice
,
L.
, and
Rumizen
,
M.
,
2008
, “
The Feasibility and Potential Environmental Benefits of Alternative Fuels for Commercial Aviation
,”
Proceedings from the 26th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences
, Anchorage, AK, September 14–19, pp.
5
8
.
11.
Moses
,
C.
,
2008
,
Comparative Evaluation of Semi-Synthetic Jet Fuels
, Final Report. CRC Project No. AV-2-04a, pp.
9
29
.
12.
Corporan
,
E.
,
Monroig
,
O.
,
Wagner
,
M.
, and
Dewitt
,
M.
,
2004
, “
Influence of Fuel Chemical Composition on Particulate Matter Emissions of a Turbine Engine
,”
Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2004
,
Vienna, Austria
, June 14-17,
ASME
Paper No. GT2004-54335.10.1115/GT2004-54335
13.
CGSB 3.24
,
2008
Aviation Turbine Fuel (Military Grades F-34 And F-44)
”, Fuel Specification.
14.
Goodger
,
E.
,
1994
,
Jet Fuel Supply and Quality
,
Landfall Press
, Norwich, UK, pp.
7
13
.
15.
Moser
,
B. R.
,
2010
,
Camelina (Camelina Sativa L) Oil as a Biofuels Feedstock: Golden Opportunity or False Hope?
,
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.
KGaS, Weinheim
, Germany.
16.
Brandauer
,
M.
,
Schultz
,
A.
, and
Wittig
,
S.
,
1996
, “
Mechanisms of Coke Formation in Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers.
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
118
(2), pp.
265
270
.10.1115/1.2816587
17.
Propulsion Chemistry Division, Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory
,
1957
, “
Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels With Air
,” NACA Report No. 1300.
18.
Bishop
,
K.
,
2009
, “
Effects of Fuel Nozzle Condition Upon Gas Turbine Combustion Chamber Exit Temperature Profiles
,”
Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo
,
Glasgow
, UK, June 14-18,
ASME
Paper No. GT2010-23441.10.1115/GT2010-23441
19.
Kotzer
,
C.
,
LaViolette
,
M.
, and
Allan
,
B.
,
2009
, “
Effects of Combustion Chamber Geometry Upon Exit Temperature Profiles
,” Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo,
Orlando, FL
, June 8-12,
ASME
Paper No. GT2009-60156.10.1115/GT2009-60156
20.
Pucher
,
G.
, and
Allan
,
W. D.
,
2008
, “
Emissions from Thermal Stability Additives, Phase 3
,” Internal Report, RMC Mechanical Engineering Report No. 080602, pp.
3
42
.
21.
Goodger
,
E.
,
2000
,
Transport Fuels and Technology-Mobility for the Millennium
,
Landfall Press
, Norwich, UK, pp.
60
90
.
You do not currently have access to this content.