Linear stability analysis is applied to a swirl-stabilized combustor flow with the aim to understand how the flame shape and associated density field affects the manifestation of self-excited flow instabilities. In isothermal swirling jets, self-excited flow oscillations typically manifest in a precessing vortex core and synchronized growth of large-scale spiral-shaped vortical structures. Recent theoretical studies relate these dynamics to a hydrodynamic global instability. These global modes also emerge in reacting flows, thereby crucially affecting the mixing characteristics and the flame dynamics. It is, however, observed that these self-excited flow oscillations are often suppressed in the reacting flow, while they are clearly present at isothermal conditions. This study provides strong evidence that the suppression of the precessing vortex core is caused by density inhomogeneities created by the flame. This mechanism is revealed by considering two reacting flow configurations: The first configuration represents a perfectly premixed steam-diluted detached flame featuring a strong precessing vortex core. The second represents a perfectly premixed dry flame anchoring near the combustor inlet, which does not exhibit self-excited oscillations. Experiments are conducted in a generic combustor test rig and the flow dynamics are captured using PIV and LDA. The corresponding density fields are approximated from the seeding density using a quantitative light sheet technique. The experimental results are compared to the global instability properties derived from hydrodynamic linear stability theory. Excellent agreement between the theoretically derived global mode frequency and measured precession frequency provide sufficient evidence to conclude that the self-excited oscillations are, indeed, driven by a global hydrodynamic instability. The effect of the density field on the global instability is studied explicitly by performing the analysis with and without density stratification. It turns out that the significant change in instability is caused by the radial density gradients in the inner recirculation zone and not by the change of the mean velocity field. The present work provides a theoretical framework to analyze the global hydrodynamic instability of realistic combustion configurations. It allows for relating the flame position and the resulting density field to the emergence of a precessing vortex core.
Why Nonuniform Density Suppresses the Precessing Vortex Core
Akustik, Chair of Fluid Dynamics,
Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 9, 2013; final manuscript received July 21, 2013; published online September 23, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.
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Oberleithner, K., Terhaar, S., Rukes, L., and Oliver Paschereit, C. (September 23, 2013). "Why Nonuniform Density Suppresses the Precessing Vortex Core." ASME. J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. December 2013; 135(12): 121506. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4025130
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