One of the main challenges of the present industrial research on centrifugal compressors is the need for extending the left margin of the operating range of the machines. As a result, interest is being paid to accurately evaluating the amplitude of the pressure fluctuations caused by rotating stall, which usually occurs prior to surge. The related aerodynamic force acting on the rotor can produce subsynchronous vibrations, which can prevent the machine's further operation, in case their amplitude is too high. These vibrations are often contained due to the stiffness of the oil journals. Centrifugal compressor design is, however, going towards alternative journal solutions having lower stiffness levels (e.g., active magnetic bearings or squeeze film dampers), which will be more sensitive to this kind of excitation: consequently, a more accurate estimation of the expected forces in the presence of dynamic external forces such as those connected to an aerodynamically unstable condition is needed to predict the vibration level and the compressor operability in similar conditions. Within this scenario, experimental tests were carried out on industrial impellers operating at high peripheral Mach numbers. The dedicated test rig was equipped with several dynamic pressure probes that were inserted in the gas flow path; moreover, the rotor vibrations were constantly monitored with typical vibration probes located near the journal bearings. The pressure field induced by the rotating stall in the vaneless diffuser was reconstructed by means of an ensemble average approach, thus defining the amplitude and frequency of the external force acting on the impeller. The calculated force value was then included in the rotordynamic model of the test rig: the predicted vibrations on the bearings were compared with the measurements, showing satisfactory agreement. Moreover, the procedure was applied to two real multistage compressors, showing notable prediction capabilities in the description of rotating stall effects on the machine rotordynamics. Finally, the prospects of the proposed approach are discussed by investigating the response of a real machine in high-pressure functioning when different choices of journal bearings are made.
A Systematic Approach to Estimate the Impact of the Aerodynamic Force Induced by Rotating Stall in a Vaneless Diffuser on the Rotordynamic Behavior of Centrifugal Compressors
Contributed by the Structures and Dynamics Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 17, 2013; final manuscript received July 22, 2013; published online September 17, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.
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Bianchini, A., Biliotti, D., Ferrara, G., Ferrari, L., Belardini, E., Giachi, M., Tapinassi, L., and Vannini, G. (September 17, 2013). "A Systematic Approach to Estimate the Impact of the Aerodynamic Force Induced by Rotating Stall in a Vaneless Diffuser on the Rotordynamic Behavior of Centrifugal Compressors." ASME. J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. November 2013; 135(11): 112502. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4025065
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