As part of the Fundamental Aeronautics program, researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) are investigating new technologies supporting the development of lighter, quieter, and more efficient fans for turbomachinery applications. High performance fan blades designed to achieve such goals will be subjected to higher levels of aerodynamic excitations which could lead to more serious and complex vibration problems. Piezoelectric materials have been proposed as a means of decreasing engine blade vibration either through a passive damping scheme, or as part of an active vibration control system. For polymer matrix fiber composite blades, the piezoelectric elements could be embedded within the blade material, protecting the brittle piezoceramic material from the airflow and from debris. To investigate this idea, spin testing was performed on two General Electric Aviation (GE) subscale composite fan blades in the NASA GRC Dynamic Spin Rig Facility. The first bending mode (1B) was targeted for vibration control. Because these subscale blades are very thin, the piezoelectric material was surface-mounted on the blades. Three thin piezoelectric patches were applied to each blade—two actuator patches and one small sensor patch. These flexible macro-fiber-composite patches were placed in a location of high resonant strain for the 1B mode. The blades were tested up to 5000 rpm, with patches used as sensors, as excitation for the blade, and as part of open- and closed-loop vibration control. Results show that with a single actuator patch, active vibration control causes the damping ratio to increase from a baseline of 0.3% critical damping to about 1.0% damping at 0 rpm. As the rotor speed approaches 5000 rpm, the actively controlled blade damping ratio decreases to about 0.5% damping. This occurs primarily because of centrifugal blade stiffening, and can be observed by the decrease in the generalized electromechanical coupling with rotor speed.

References

References
1.
Chopra
,
I.
,
2002
, “
Review of State of Art of Smart Structures and Integrated Systems
,”
AIAA J.
,
40
(
11
), pp.
2145
2187
.10.2514/2.1561
2.
Hagood
,
N. W.
, and
von Flotow
,
A.
,
1991
, “
Damping of Structural Vibrations With Piezoelectric Materials and Passive Electrical Networks
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
146
(
2
), pp.
243
268
.10.1016/0022-460X(91)90762-9
3.
Lesieutre
,
G. A.
,
1998
, “
Vibration Damping and Control Using Shunted Piezoelectric Materials
,”
Shock Vib. Dig.
,
30
(
3
), pp.
187
195
.10.1177/058310249803000301
4.
Cross
,
C. J.
, and
Lewis
,
T. J.
,
2002
, “
Smart Materials and Structures for Future Aircraft Engines
,” AIAA 2002-0080,
Proceedings of the 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit
,
Reno, NV, January 14–17
.
5.
Remington
,
P.
,
Sutliff
,
D.
, and
Sommerfeldt
,
S.
,
2003
, “
Active Control of Low-Speed Fan Tonal Noise Using Actuators Mounted in Stator Vanes: Part 1 Control System Design and Implementation
,” AIAA 2003-3190,
Proceedings of the 9th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference and Exhibit
,
Hilton Head, SC, May 12–14
.
6.
Watanabe
,
T.
,
Kazawa
,
J.
,
Uzawa
,
S.
, and
Keim
,
B.
,
2008
, “
Numerical and Experimental Study of Active Flutter Suppression With Piezoelectric Device for Transonic Cascade
,”
Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2008
,
Berlin
, June 9–13,
ASME
Paper No. GT2008-51467. 10.1115/GT2008-51467
7.
Struzik
,
R. C.
, and
Wang
,
K. W.
,
2009
Intentionally Mistuned Piezoelectric Networks for the Enhancement of Bladed Disk Structures
,”
Proc. SPIE 7292
, Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil,
Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems
, March 30, Paper No. 72921A. 10.1117/12.815813
8.
Yu
,
H.
, and
Wang
,
K. W.
,
2007
, “
Piezoelectric Networks for Vibration Suppression of Mistuned Bladed Disks
,”
J. Vibr. Acoust.
,
129
, pp.
559
566
.10.1115/1.2775511
9.
Cross
,
C. J.
, and
Fleeter
,
S.
,
2002
, “
Shunted Piezoelectrics for Passive Control of Turbomachine Blading Flow-Induced Vibrations
,”
Smart Mater. Struct.
,
11
, pp.
239
248
.10.1088/0964-1726/11/2/307
10.
Hohl
,
A.
,
Neubauer
,
M.
,
Schwarzendahl
,
S. M.
,
Panning
,
L.
, and
Wallaschek
,
J.
,
2009
, “
Active and Semiactive Vibration Damping of Turbine Blades With Piezoceramics
,”
Proc. SPIE
,
7288
, pp.
1H
.10.1117/12.815800
11.
Kauffman
,
J. L.
, and
Lesieutre
,
G. A.
,
2010
, “
Piezoelectric-Based Vibration Damping and Control of Turbomachinery Bladed Disks
,”
Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies (ICAST)
,
University Park
,
PA, October 4–6
.
12.
Hilbert
,
G. R.
,
Pearson
,
D. D.
, and
Crawley
,
E. F.
,
2001
, “
Method and Apparatus for Damping Vibration in Turbomachine Components
,” U.S. Patent No. 6,299,410.
13.
Duffy
,
K. P.
,
Provenza
,
A. J.
,
Trudell
,
J. J.
, and
Min
,
J. B.
,
2009
, “
Passively Shunted Piezoelectric Damping of Centrifugally-Loaded Plates
,”
Proceedings of the 50th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures
,
Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference
,
Palm Springs, CA, May 4–7, Paper No. AIAA-2009-2524
.
14.
Siemann
,
J.
,
Nollau
,
R.
,
Grüber
,
B.
, and
Seume
,
J.
,
2009
, “
Controlled Excitation of Rotor Blades via Macro Fiber Composites in an Axial Compressor
,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, Paper No. ISABE-2009-1263.
15.
Bachmann
,
F.
,
Bergamini
,
A.
, and
Ermanni
,
P.
,
2010
, “
Embedding of Customized Piezoelectric Modules in Highly Loaded CFRP Blade Structures
,”
Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies (ICAST)
,
University Park
,
PA, October 4–6
.
16.
Choi
,
B.
,
Morrison
,
C.
, and
Duffy
,
K.
,
2008
, “
An Active Damping at Blade Resonances Using Piezoelectric Transducers
,”
Proceedings of the Propulsion—Safety and Affordable Readiness (P-SAR) Conference
,
Myrtle Beach
,
SC
, March 18–20, available at http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20080023308_2008022865.pdf
17.
Min
,
J. B.
,
Duffy
,
K. P.
,
Choi
,
B. B.
,
Provenza
,
A. L.
, and
Kray
,
N.
,
2012
, “
Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Study for Rotating Composite Fan Blades
,”
Proceedings of the 14th AIAA Structures
,
Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference
,
Honolulu, HI, April 23–26, Paper No. AIAA-2012-1644
.
18.
Morrison
,
C. R.
,
Provenza
,
A. J.
,
Kurkov
,
A.
,
Montague
,
G.
,
Duffy
,
K.
,
Mehmed
,
O.
,
Johnson
,
D.
, and
Jansen
,
R.
,
2005
, “
Fully Suspended, Five-Axis, Three-Magnetic-Bearing Dynamic Spin Rig With Forced Excitation
,”
Exp. Mech.
,
45
(
3
), pp.
226
237
.10.1007/BF02427946
You do not currently have access to this content.