This work elucidated which engine operating parameters have the greatest influence on Low temperature diesel combustion (LTC) and emissions. Key parameters were selected and evaluated at low and intermediate speed and load conditions using fractional factorial and Taguchi orthogonal experimental designs. The variations investigated were: about ± 5% in EGR rate, fuel injection quantity and engine speed respectively; and ± 10 °C in intake charge temperature. The half-fractional factorial results showed that the interactions among these parameters were negligible for a specific load/speed point. The Taguchi orthogonal method could be used as an efficient DoE tool for studying the multi-parameter ‘small-scale transients’ that a diesel engine would be likely to encounter when operating in LTC modes. LTC showed the most significant sensitivity to EGR rate variations, where an increase from 60% to 63% in EGR rate doubled THC and CO emissions and reduced combustion stability. LTC was also sensitive to the fuel injection quantity with an increase in injected mass lowering the overall oxygen-fuel ratio and thereby increasing THC and CO emissions. These two parameters influenced the oxygen concentration in the intake charge; which was identified to be a decisive parameter for the LTC combustion and emissions. Intake charge temperature affected the total charge quantity trapped in the cylinder and showed noticeable influence on CO emissions for the low speed intermediate load condition. Variations in engine speed showed a negligible influence on the LTC combustion processes and emissions.

References

References
1.
Ogawa
,
H.
,
Li
,
T.
, and
Miyamoto
,
N.
, 2007, “
Characteristics of Low Temperature and Low Oxygen Diesel Combustion With Ultra-High Exhaust Gas Recirculation
,”
Int. J. Eng. Res.
,
8
, pp.
365
378
.
2.
Cong
,
S.
,
McTaggart-Cowan
,
G. P.
, and
Garner
,
C. P.
, 2011, “
The Effects of Exhaust Back Pressure on Conventional and Low Temperature Diesel Combustion
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D (J. Automob. Eng.)
,
225
, pp.
222
235
.
3.
Cong
,
S.
,
McTaggart-Cowan
,
G. P.
, and
Garner
,
C. P.
, 2010, “
Effects of Fuel Injection Parameters on Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Stability
,” SAE Paper No. 2010-01-0611.
4.
Cong
,
S.
,
McTaggart-Cowan
,
G. P.
,
Garner
,
C. P.
,
Wahab
,
E.
, and
Peckham
,
M.
, 2011, “
Experimental Investigation of Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Processes
,”
Combust. Sci. Technol.
,
12
, pp.
1376
1400
.
5.
Yokomura
,
H.
,
Kouketsu
,
S.
,
Kotooka
,
S.
, and
Akao
,
Y.
, 2004, “
Transient EGR Control for a Turbocharged Heavy Duty Diesel Engine
,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-0120.
6.
Nakayama
,
S.
,
Ibuki
,
T.
,
Hosaki
,
H.
, and
Tominaga
,
H.
, 2008, “
An Application of Model Based Combustion Control to Transient Cycle-by-Cycle Diesel Combustion
,” SAE Paper No. 2008-01-1311.
7.
Liebig
,
D.
,
Krane
,
W.
,
Ziman
,
P.
,
Garbe
,
T.
, and
Hoenig
,
M.
, 2008, “
The Response of a Closed Loop Controlled Diesel Engine on Fuel Variation
,” SAE Paper No. 2008-01-2471.
8.
Zheng
,
M.
,
Tan
,
Y.
,
Reader
,
G. T.
,
Asad
,
U.
,
Han
,
X.
, and
Wang
,
M.
, 2009, “
Prompt Heat Release Analysis to Improve Diesel Low Temperature Combustion
,” SAE Paper No. 2009-01-1883.
9.
VanNieuwstadt
,
M. J.
,
Kolmanovsky
,
I. V.
, and
Moraal
,
P. E.
, 2000, “
Coordinated EGR-VGT Control for Diesel Engines: An Experimental Comparison
,” SAE Paper No. 2000-01-0266.
10.
Alriksson
,
M.
, and
Denbratt
,
I. G.
, 2006, “
Low Temperature Combustion in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Using High Levels of EGR
,” SAE Paper No. 2006-01-0075.
11.
Beatrice
,
C.
,
Avolio
,
G.
, and
Guido
,
C.
, 2007, “
Experimental Analysis of the Operating Parameter Influence on the Application of Low Temperature Combustion in the Modern Diesel Engines
,” SAE Paper No. 2007-01-1839.
12.
Li
,
T.
, and
Ogawa
,
H.
, 2009, “
Regulated Emissions and Speciated Hydrocarbons From Smokeless Low-Temperature Combustion Diesel Engines With Ultra-High Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Exhaust Oxidation Catalyst
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D (J. Automob. Eng.)
,
223
, pp.
673
683
.
13.
Yun
,
H.
,
Sellnau
,
M.
,
Milovanovic
,
N.
, and
Zuelch
,
S.
, 2008, “
Development of Premixed Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion in a HSDI Diesel Engine
,” SAE Paper No. 2008-01-0639.
14.
Page
,
V. J.
,
Garner
,
C. P.
,
Hargrave
,
G. K.
, and
Versteeg
,
H. K.
, 2002, “
Development of a Validated CFD Process for the Analysis of Inlet Manifold Flows With EGR
,” SAE Paper No. 2002-01-0071.
15.
Ross
,
P. J.
, 1996,
Taguchi Techniques for Quality Engineering
,
2nd ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
16.
Montgomery
,
D. C.
, 2009,
Design and Analysis of Experiments
,
7th ed.
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
17.
Hagena
,
J. R.
,
Filipi
,
Z. S.
, and
Assanis
,
D. N.
, 2006, “
Transient Diesel Emissions: Analysis of Engine Operation During a Tip-In
,” SAE Paper No. 2006-01-1151.
18.
Ladommatos
,
N.
,
Abdelhalim
,
S.
, and
Zhao
,
H.
, 2000, “
The Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Combustion and Emissions
,”
Int. J. Eng. Res.
,
1
, pp.
107
126
.
19.
Akihama
,
K.
,
Takatori
,
Y.
,
Inagaki
,
K.
,
Sasaki
,
S.
, and
Dean
,
A. M.
, 2001, “
Mechanism of the Smokeless Rich Diesel Combustion by Reducing Temperature
,” SAE Paper No. 2001-01-0655.
You do not currently have access to this content.