Different combustion strategies and fuel sources are needed to deal with increasing fuel efficiency demands and emission restrictions. One possible strategy is dual fueling using readily available resources. Propane and natural gas are readily available with the current infrastructure and biodiesel is growing in popularity as a renewable fuel. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel combustion of methane (as a surrogate for natural gas) and propane as primary fuels with biodiesel pilots in a 1.9 liter, turbocharged, 4-cylinder compression ignition engine at 1800 rev/min. Experiments were performed with different percentage energy substitutions (PES) of propane and methane and at different brake mean effective pressures (BMEP/bmep). Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2, O2 and smoke) were also measured. Maximum PES levels for B100-methane dual fueling were limited to 70% at 2.5 bars bmep and 48% at 10 bars bmep, and corresponding values for B100-propane dual fueling were 64% and 43%, respectively. Maximum PES was limited by misfire at 2.5 bars bmep and the onset of engine knock at 10 bars bmep. Dual fuel BTEs approached straight B100 values at 10 bars bmep while they were significantly lower than B100 values at 2.5 bars bmep. In general, dual fueling was beneficial in reducing NOx and smoke emissions by 33% and 50%, respectively, from baseline B100 levels; however, both CO and THC emissions were significantly higher than baseline B100 levels at all PES and loads.

References

References
1.
Karim
,
G. A.
, 1987, “
The Dual Fuel Engine
,”
Automotive Engine Alternatives
R. L.
Evans
, ed.,
Plenum Press
,
New York
.
2.
Srinivasan
,
K. K.
,
Krishnan
,
S. R.
,
Singh
,
S.
,
Midkiff
,
K. C.
,
Bell
,
S. R.
,
Gong
,
W.
,
Fiveland
,
S. B.
, and
Willi
,
M.
, 2006, “
The Advanced Low Pilot Ignited Natural Gas Engine—A Combustion Analysis
,”
Trans. ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
128
(
1
), pp.
213
218
.
3.
Krishnan
,
S. R.
,
Srinivasan
,
K. K.
,
Singh
,
S.
,
Midkiff
,
K. C.
,
Bell
,
S. R.
,
Gong
,
W.
,
Fiveland
,
S. B.
, and
Willi
,
M.
, 2004, “
Strategies for Reduced NOx Emissions in Pilot-Ignited Natural Gas Engines
,”
Trans. ASME: J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
126
(
3
), pp.
665
671
.
4.
Splitter
,
D.
,
Hanson
,
R.
,
Kokjohn
,
S.
, and
Reitz
,
R.
, 2011, “
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Heavy-Duty Engine Operation at Mid-and High-Loads With Conventional and Alternative Fuels
,” SAE Paper No. 2011-01-0363.
5.
Karim
,
G. A.
, 2003, “
Combustion in Gas Fueled Compression: Ignition Engines of the Dual Fuel Type
,”
Trans. ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
125
, pp.
827
836
.
6.
Gibson
,
C. M.
,
Polk
,
A. C.
,
Shoemaker
,
N. T.
,
Srinivasan
,
K. K.
,
Krishnan
,
S. R.
, 2011, “
Comparison of Propane and Methane Performance and Emissions in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine
,”
Trans. ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
133
(
9
),
092806
.
7.
Papagiannakis
,
R. G.
, and
Hountalas
,
D. T.
, 2003, “
Experimental Investigation of Natural Gas Percentage on Performance and Emissions of a D. I. Dual Fuel Engine
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
23
, pp.
353
365
.
8.
Daisho
,
Y.
,
Koseki
,
T.
,
Saito
,
T.
, and
Kihara
,
R.
, 1995, “
Combustion and Exhaust Emissions in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine Dual-Fueled With Natural Gas
,” SAE Paper No. 950465.
9.
Poonia
,
M. P.
,
Ramesh
,
A.
, and
Gaur
,
R. R.
, 1999, “
Experimental Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Performance of a LPG—Diesel Dual Fuel Engine
,” SAE Paper No. 1999-01-1123.
10.
Stewart
,
J.
,
Clarke
,
A.
, and
Chen
,
R.
, 2007, “
An Experimental Study of the Dual-Fuel Performance of a Small Compression Ignition Diesel Engine Operating With Three Gaseous Fuels
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, J. Automob. Eng.
,
22
(
8
), pp.
943
956
.
11.
Liu
,
Z.
, and
Karim
,
G. A.
, 1995, “
The Ignition Delay Period in Dual Fuel Engines
,” SAE Paper No. 950466.
12.
Jian
,
D.
,
Xiaohong
,
G.
,
Gesheng
,
L.
, and
Xintang
,
Z.
, 2001, “
Study on Diesel-LPG Dual Fuel Engines
,” SAE Paper No. 2001-01-3679.
13.
Goto
,
S.
,
Lee
,
D.
,
Wakao
,
Y.
,
Honma
,
H.
,
Mori
,
M.
,
Akasaka
,
Y.
,
Hashimoto
,
K.
,
Motohashi
,
M.
, and
Konno
,
M.
, 1999, “
Development of an LPG DI Diesel Engine Using Cetane Number Enhancing Additives
,” SAE Paper No. 1999-01-3602.
14.
Ogawa
,
H.
,
Miyamoto
,
N.
,
Li
,
C.
,
Nakazawa
,
S.
, and
Akao
,
K.
, 2001, “
Low Emission and Knock-Free Combustion With Rich and Lean Biform Mixture in a Dual-Fuel CI Engine With Induced LPG as the Main Fuel
,” SAE Paper No. 2001-01-3502.
15.
Yao
,
M.
,
Zheng
,
Z.
, and
Qin
,
J.
, 2006, “
Experimental Study on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion With Fuel of Dimethyl Ether and Natural Gas
,”
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
128
, pp.
414
420
.
16.
Ogawa
,
H.
,
Miyamoto
,
N.
,
Li
,
C.
,
Nakazawa
,
S.
, and
Akao
,
K.
, 2001, “
Smokeless and Low NOx Combustion in a Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine With Induced Natural Gas as the Main Fuel
,”
Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines
(COMODIA 2001), Jul
1
4
, 2001,
Nagoya, Japan
, Paper No. 3-06,
17.
Nazar
,
J.
,
Ramesh
,
A.
, and
Nagalingam
,
B.
, 2006, “
Studies on Dual Fuel Operation of Karanja Oil and Its Bio-Diesel With LPG as the Inducted Fuel
,” SAE Paper No. 2006-01-0237.
18.
SAE International, 2002, “
Diesel Engine Emission Measurement Procedure: Recommended Practice
,” SAE Paper No. J1003.
19.
Heywood
,
J. B.
, 1988,
Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals
,
McGraw Hill, Inc.
,
New York
.
20.
Kubesh
,
J. T.
, 2002, “
Uncertainty in the Determination of Thermal Efficiency in Natural Gas Engines
,”
Proceedings of the 2002 Fall Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division
, Sept. 8–11 2002,
New Orleans, LA, United States
,
39
, pp.
395
402
.
21.
Yap
,
D.
,
Megaritis
,
A.
,
Peucheret
.
S.
,
Wyszynski
,
M. W.
, and
Xu
,
H.
, 2004, “
Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Natural Gas HCCI Combustion
,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-1972.
22.
Kalghatgi
,
G. T.
, and
Head
,
R. A.
, 2005, “
Combustion Limits and Efficiency in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine
,”
Int. J. Eng. Res.
7
, pp.
215
236
.
23.
Hanson
,
R. M.
,
Kokjohn
,
S. L.
Splitter
,
D.
A.
and
Reitz
,
R. D.
, 2010, “
An Experimental Investigation of Fuel Reactivity Controlled PCCI Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine
,” SAE 2010-01-0864.
24.
Peters
,
N.
, 1999, “
The Turbulent Burning Velocity for Large-Scale and Small-Scale Turbulence
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
384
, pp.
107
132
.
25.
Mueller
,
C.
,
Boehman
,
A. L.
, and
Martin
,
G. C.
, 2009, “
An Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Increased NOx Emissions When Fueling a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine With Soy Biodiesel
,” SAE Paper No. 2009-01-1792.
26.
Sjoberg
,
M.
, and
Dec
,
J.
, 2005 “
An Investigation Into Lowest Acceptable Combustion Temperatures for Hydrocarbon Fuels in HCCI Engines
,”
Proc. Combust. Inst.
,
30
(
2
), pp.
719
2726
.
You do not currently have access to this content.