Measuring the rate of injection of a common-rail injector is one of the first steps for diesel engine development. The injected quantity as a function of time is of prime interest for engine research and modeling activities, as it drives spray development and mixing, which, in current diesel engines, control combustion. On the other hand, the widely used long-tube method provides results that are neither straightforward nor fully understood. This study, performed on a 0.09-mm axially drilled single-hole nozzle, is part of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) and aims at analyzing the acoustic oscillations observed in the rate of injection signal and measuring their impact on the real injection process and on the results recorded by the experimental devices. Several tests have been carried out for this study, including rate of injection and momentum, X-ray phase-contrast of the injector, and needle motion or injector displacement. The acoustic analysis revealed that these fluctuations found their origin in the sac of the injector and that they were the results of an interaction between the fluid in the chamber (generally gases) or in the nozzle sac and the liquid fuel to be injected. It has been observed that the relatively high oscillations recorded by the long-tube method were mainly caused by a displacement of the injector itself while injecting. In addition, the results showed that these acoustic features are also present in the spray, which means that the oscillations make it out of the injector, and that this temporal variation must be reflected in the actual rate of injection.

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