A modeling procedure was developed to simulate design and off-design operation of hybrid solar gas turbines in a combined cycle (CC) configuration. The system includes a heliostat field, a receiver, and a commercial gas turbine (GT) interfaced with a conventional steam Rankine cycle. Solar power input is integrated in the GT combustor by natural gas. Advanced commercial software tools were combined together to get design and off-design performance prediction: TRNSYS® was used to model the solar field and the receiver while the gas turbine and steam cycle simulations were performed by means of Thermoflex®. Three GT models were considered, in the 35–45 MW range: a single shaft engine (Siemens SGT-800) and two two-shaft engines (the heavy-duty GT Siemens SGT-750 and the aero derivative GE LM6000 PF). This was in order to assess the influence of different GT spool arrangements and control strategies on GT solarization. The simulation method provided an accurate modeling of the daily solar hybrid CC behavior to be compared against the standard CC. The effects of solarization were estimated in terms of electric power and efficiency reduction, fossil fuel savings, and solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

References

References
1.
Klaiß
H.
,
Köhne
,
R.
,
Nitsch
,
J.
,
Sprengel
U.
,
1995
, “
Solar Thermal Power Plants for Solar Countries—Technologies, Economics and Market Potential
,”
Appl. Energ.
,
52
, pp.
163
183
.10.1016/0306-2619(95)00036-R
2.
Zarza
,
E.
,
Rojas
,
M. E.
,
Gonzales
,
L.
,
Caballero
,
J. M.
, and
Rueda
F.
,
2006
, “
INDITEP: The First Pre-Commercial DSG Solar Power Plant
,”
Sol. Energy
,
80
, pp.
1270
1276
.10.1016/j.solener.2005.04.019
3.
Buck
,
R.
,
Barth
,
C.
,
Eck
,
M.
, and
Steinmann
W.D.
,
2006
, “
Dual-Receiver Concept for Solar Towers
,”
Sol. Energy
,
80
, pp.
1249
1254
.10.1016/j.solener.2005.03.014
4.
Kane
,
M.
,
Favrat
,
D.
,
Ziegler
,
K.
, and
Allani
Y.
,
2000
, “
Thermoeconomic Analysis of Advanced Solar-Fossil Combined Power Plants
,”
Int. J. Appl. Thermodyn.
,
3
(
4
), pp.
191
198
.
5.
Dersch
,
J.
,
Geyer
,
M.
,
Herrmann
,
U.
,
Jones
,
S. A.
,
Kelly
,
B.
,
Kistner
,
R.
,
Ortmanns
,
W.
,
Pitz-Pall
,
R.
, and
Price
H.
,
2004
, “
Trough Integration into Power Plants—A Study on the Performance and Economy of Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Systems
,”
Energy
,
29
, pp.
947
959
.10.1016/S0360-5442(03)00199-3
6.
Turchi
,
C. S.
,
Zhiwen
,
M.
, and
Erbes
M.
,
2011
, “Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2011-45184.10.1115/GT2011-45184
7.
Hu
,
E.
,
Yang
,
Y.
,
Nishimura
,
A.
,
Yilmaz
,
F.
, and
Kouzani
A.
,
2010
, “
Solar Thermal Aided Power Generation
,”
Appl. Energ.
87
(
9
), pp.
2881
2885
.10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.10.025
8.
Fisher
,
U.
,
Sugarmen
,
C.
,
Ring
,
A.
, and
Sinai
J.
,
2004
, “
Gas Turbine ‘Solarization’—Modifications for Solar/Fuel Hybrid Operation
,”
ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng.
,
126
, pp.
872
878
.10.1115/1.1763602
9.
Buck
,
R.
,
Bräuning
,
T.
,
Denk
,
T.
,
Pfänder
,
M.
,
Schwarzbölz
,
P.
, and
Tellez
F.
,
2002
, “
Solar-Hybrid Gas Turbine-Based Power Tower Systems (REFOS)
,”
ASME J. Sol. Energ. Eng.
,
124
, pp.
2
9
.10.1115/1.1445444
10.
Heller
,
P.
,
Pfänder
,
M.
,
Denk
,
T.
,
Tellez
,
F.
,
Valverde
,
A.
,
Fernandez
,
J.
, and
Ring
A.
,
2006
, “
Test and Evaluation of a Solar Powered Gas Turbine System
,”
Sol. Energy
80
, pp.
1225
1230
.
10.1016/j.solener.2005.04.020
11.
Collado
F.J.
,
2008
Quick Evaluation of the Annual Heliostat Field Efficiency
,”
Sol. Energy
,
82
, pp.
379
384
.10.1016%2fj.solener.2007.10.007
12.
Wei
,
X.
,
Lu
,
Z.
,
Yu
,
W.
, and
Wang
Z.
,
2010
, “
A New Code for the Design and Analysis of the Heliostat Field Layout for Power Tower System
,”
Sol. Energy
,
84
, pp.
685
690
.10.1016/j.solener.2010.01.020
13.
Pitz-Paal
,
R.
,
Bayer Botero
,
N.
, and
Steinfeld
A.
,
2011
, “
Heliostat Field Layout Optimization for High-Temperature Solar Thermochemical Processing
,”
Sol. Energy
,
85
, pp.
334
343
.10.1016/j.solener.2010.11.018
14.
Kribus
,
A.
,
Zaibel
,
R.
,
Carey
,
D.
,
Segal
,
A.
, and
Karni
J.
,
1998
, “
A Solar-Driven Combined Cycle Power Plant
,”
Sol. Energy
,
62
(
2
), pp.
121
129
.10.1016/S0038-092X(97)00107-2
15.
Segal
,
A.
, and
Epstein
M.
,
1999
, “
Comparative Analysis of ‘Tower-Top’ and ‘Tower-Reflector’ Central Solar Receivers
,”
Sol. Energy
,
65
(
4
), pp.
207
226
.10.1016/S0038-092X(98)00138-8
16.
Segal
,
A.
, and
Epstein
M.
,
2000
, “
The Optics of the Solar Tower Reflector
,”
Sol. Energy
,
69
, pp.
229
241
.10.1016/S0038-092X(00)00137-7
17.
Buck
,
R.
, and
Friedmann
S.
,
2007
, “
Solar-Assisted Small Solar Tower Trigeneration Systems
,”
J. Sol. Energ. Eng.
,
129
, pp.
349
54
.10.1115/1.2769688
18.
Garcia
,
P.
,
Ferriere
,
A.
,
Flamant
,
G.
,
Soler
,
R.
, and
Gagnepain
B.
,
2008
, “
Solar Field Efficiency and Electricity Generation Estimations for a Hybrid Solar Gas Turbine Project in France
,”
ASME J. Sol. Energ. Eng.
,
130
, p. 014502.10.1115%2f1.2807211
19.
Schwarzbözl
,
P.
,
Buck
,
R.
,
Sugarmen
,
C.
,
Ring
,
A.
,
Crespo
,
M. J. M.
,
Altwegg
,
P.
, and
Enrile
J.
,
2006
, “
Solar Gas Turbine Systems: Design, Cost and Perspective
,”
Sol. Energy
,
80
, pp.
1231
1246
.10.1016/j.solener.2005.09.007
20.
Spelling
,
J.
,
Favrat
,
D.
,
Martin
,
A.
, and
Augsburger
G.
,
2011
, “
Thermoeconomic Optimization of a Combined-Cycle Solar Tower Power Plant
,”
Energy
,
41
(
1
), pp.
113
-
120
.10.1016/j.energy.2011.03.073
21.
European Commission
,
2005
,
EUR 21615–SOLGATE-Solar Hybrid Gas Turbine Electric Power System
,
European Commission Office CDMA 05/141 B-1049, Brussels.
22.
Dickey
B.
,
2011
, “
Test Results From a Concentrated Solar Microturbine Brayton Cycle Integration
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2011-45918.10.1115/GT2011-45918
23.
Hischier
,
I.
,
Hess
,
D.
,
Lipinski
,
W.
,
Modest
,
M.
, and
Steinfeld
,
A.
,
2009
, “
Heat Transfer Analysis of a Novel Pressurized Air Receiver for Concentrated Solar Power via Combined Cycles
,
J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl.
,
1
,
041002-1
6
.10.1115%2f1.4001259
24.
Karni
,
J.
,
Kribus
,
A.
,
Doron
,
P.
,
Rubin
,
R.
,
Fiterman
,
A.
, and
Sagie
,
D.
,
1997
, “
The DIAPR: A High-Pressure, High-Temperature Solar Receiver
,”
J. Sol Energ. Eng.
,
119
, pp.
74
78
.10.1115/1.2871853
25.
Barigozzi
,
G.
,
Bonetti
,
G.
,
Franchini
,
G.
,
Perdichizzi
,
A.
, and
Ravelli
,
S.
, “
Thermal Performance Prediction of a Solar Hybrid Gas Turbine
,”
Sol. Energy
, 86(7), pp. 2116–2127.
28.
GE Nuovo Pignone, private communication 2011.
29.
An Assessment of Solar Energy Conversion Technologies and Research Opportunities, Technical Assessment Report
,” 2011, http://gcep.stanford.edu
30.
Il Programma Agenzia nazionale per le nuove tecnologie, l'energia e lo sviluppo economico sostenibile (ENEA) sull'Energia Solare a Concentrazione ad Alta Temperatura,
2005
, (www.solaritaly.enea.it).
You do not currently have access to this content.