Monitoring rotor deformations and vibrations dynamically is an important task for improving both the safety and the lifetime as well as the energy efficiency of motors and turbo machines. However, due to the high rotor speed encountered in particular at turbo machines, this requires concurrently high measurement rate and high accuracy, which is hardly possible to achieve with currently available measurement techniques. To solve this problem, in this paper, we present a novel nonincremental interferometric optical sensor that measures simultaneously the in-plane velocity and the out-of-plane position of laterally moving objects with micrometer precision and concurrently with microsecond temporal resolution. It will be shown that this sensor exhibits the outstanding feature that its measurement uncertainty is generally independent of the object velocity, which enables precise deformation and vibration measurements also at high rotor speed. Moreover, this sensor does not require an in situ calibration and it allows a direct measurement of blade velocity variations in contrast to blade tip timing systems. For application under harsh environmental conditions such as high temperatures, a robust and miniaturized fiber-optic sensor setup was developed. To demonstrate the capability of this sensor, measurements of tip clearance changes and rotor blade vibrations at varying operating conditions of a transonic centrifugal compressor test rig at blade tip velocities up to 600 m/s are presented among others.

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