Reactivity accident due to inadvertent withdrawal of the control rod is one kind of the design basis accident for high temperature gas-cooled reactors, which should be analyzed carefully in order to validate the reactor inherent safety properties. Based on the preliminary design of the Chinese pebble-bed modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-PM) with single module power of 250 MW, several cases of reactivity accident has been studied by the help of the software TINTE in the paper (e.g., the first scram signal works or not, the absorber balls (secondary shutdown units) drop or not) and the ATWS situation is also taken into account. The dynamic processes of the important parameters including reactor power, fuel temperature, and xenon concentration are studied and compared in detail between these different cases. The calculating results show that the decay heat during the reactivity accidents can be removed from the reactor core solely by means of physical processes in a passive way so that the temperature limits of the fuel element and other components are still obeyed, which can effectively keep the integrality of the fuel particles to avoid massive fission products release. This will be helpful to the further detail design of the HTR-PM demonstrating power plant project.