The three groups of parameters that affect flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) are the flow conditions, water chemistry, and materials. Nuclear power plant (NPP) data and laboratory tests confirm that, under alkaline water chemistry, there is a close relationship between local flow conditions and FAC rates in the piping components. The knowledge of the local flow effects can be useful for developing targeted inspection plans for piping components and predicting the location of the highest FAC rate for a given piping component. A similar evaluation applies also to the FAC in heat transfer equipments such as heat exchangers and steam generators. The objective of this paper is to examine the role of the flow and mass transfer in bends under alkaline FAC conditions. Bends experience increased FAC rates compared with straight pipes, and are the most common components in piping systems. This study presents numerical simulations of the mass transfer of ferrous ions and experimental results of the FAC rate in bends. It also shows correlations for mass transfer coefficients in bends and reviews the most important flow parameters affecting the mass transfer coefficient. The role of bend geometry and, in particular, the short and long radii, surface roughness, wall shear stress, and local turbulence, is discussed. Computational fluid dynamics calculations and plant artifact measurements for short- and long-radius bends are presented. The effect of the close proximity of the two bends on the FAC rate is also examined based on CANDU (CANDU is a registered trademark of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) NPP inspection data and compared with literature data.

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