Accurate calculation algorithms for the thermodynamic and transport properties of humid air are required for modeling compressed air energy-storage power cycles and designing their individual components. The development of such algorithms was part of the Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (AA-CAES) project, which had been supported by the European Commission. To obtain the statements of this paper, all available experimental data and new experimental data generated within the AA-CAES project were used as basis for comparisons between the different models for thermodynamic and transport properties. As a result, one model for calculating thermodynamic and one model for transport properties of humid air in AA-CAES cycle design and operation is recommended. Their application is possible for wide ranges of temperature from 243 K up to 2000 K, total pressure from 0.611 kPa up to 100 MPa, and water content up to 10% mass fraction with some restrictions concerning the calculation of viscosity η and thermal conductivity λ (up to 1000 K for both and up to 40 MPa for λ). These models have been implemented into a property library, which meets the requirements of programs for calculating compressed air energy-storage cycles. The developed property library can be used for the daily work of an engineer who calculates such cycles. The results summarized in this paper have been used for preparing Section 6, “Real Gas” of the ASME Report No. STP-TS-012, “Thermophysical Properties of Gases used in Working Gas Turbine Applications.”

1.
The European Commission
, 2002, “
Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (AA-CAES)
,” Project No. ENK6-CT-2002-00611, http://cordis.europa.euhttp://cordis.europa.eu
2.
The European Parliament
, 2005, “
European Energy Outlook: Energy Security and Environmental Challenges
,” Brussels, http://www.iccfglobal.org/pdf/brussels/cozzi.pdfhttp://www.iccfglobal.org/pdf/brussels/cozzi.pdf
3.
European Renewable Energy Council
, 2004, “
Renewable Energy Target for Europe 20% by 2020
,” www.erec-renewables.orgwww.erec-renewables.org
4.
Herrmann
,
S.
,
Kretzschmar
,
H. -J.
,
Teske
,
V.
,
Vogel
,
E.
,
Ulbig
,
P.
,
Span
,
R.
, and
Gatley
,
D. P.
, 2009, “
Determination of Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Humid Air for Power-Cycle Calculations
,” Report No. PTB-CP-3,
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin
.
5.
ASME Air Properties Committee
, 2008, “
Thermophysical Properties of Working Gases Used in Working Gas Turbine Applications
,” Report No. STP-TS-012,
ASME Standards Technology
, LLC, New York.
6.
Zunft
,
S.
,
Tamme
,
R.
,
Nowi
,
A.
, and
Jakiel
,
C.
, 2005, “
Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage Power Plants: An Element for the Power Line Conform Integration of Wind Energy
,”
Energiewirtschaftliche Tagesfragen
0720-6240,
55
, pp.
451
455
.
7.
Lemmon
,
E. W.
,
Jacobsen
,
R. T.
,
Penoncello
,
S. G.
, and
Friend
,
D. G.
, 2000, “
Thermodynamic Properties of Air and Mixtures of Nitrogen, Argon, and Oxygen from 60 to 2000 K at Pressures to 2000 MPa
,”
J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data
0047-2689,
29
, pp.
331
385
.
8.
Trusler
,
J. P. M.
, 2004, private communication, Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine, London.
9.
Wöll
,
O.
, 2005, “
Measurements on Dynamic Viscosity and Density of Dry and Humid Air and Further Development of a Combined Viscosity Density Measuring System
,” Ph.D. thesis, Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum.
10.
Klingenberg
,
G.
, and
Ulbig
,
P.
, 2007, “
Isochoric pρT Measurements on Dry and Humid Air
,”
J. Chem. Eng. Data
0021-9568,
52
, pp.
1413
1419
.
11.
Japas
,
M. L.
, and
Franck
,
E. U.
, 1985, “
High Pressure Phase Equilibria and PVT-Data of the Water-Oxygen System Including Water-Air to 673 K and 250 MPa
,”
Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem.
0005-9021,
89
, pp.
1268
1275
.
12.
Trusler
,
J. P. M.
, 2005, private communication, Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine, London..
13.
Pollitzer
,
F.
, and
Strebel
,
E.
, 1924, “
Over the Influence of Indifferent Gases on the Saturation Steam Concentration of Liquids
,”
Z. Phys. Chem.
0942-9352,
110
, pp.
768
785
.
14.
Webster
,
T. J.
, 1950, “
The Effect on Water Vapor Pressure of Super-Imposed Air Pressure
,”
J. Soc. Chem. Ind., London
0368-4075,
69
, pp.
343
346
.
15.
Hyland
,
R. W.
, and
Wexler
,
A.
, 1973, “
The Enhancement of Water Vapor in Carbon Dioxide-Free Air at 30, 40, and 50°C
,”
J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand.
0160-1741,
77A
, pp.
115
131
.
16.
Hyland
,
R. W.
, 1975, “
A Correlation for the Second Interaction Virial Coefficients and Enhancement Factors for Humid Air
,”
J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand.
0160-1741,
79A
, pp.
551
560
.
17.
Wylie
,
R. G.
, and
Fisher
,
R. S.
, 1996, “
Molecular Interaction of Water Vapor and Air
,”
J. Chem. Eng. Data
0021-9568,
41
, pp.
133
142
.
18.
Koglbauer
,
G.
, and
Wendland
,
M.
, 2007, “
Water Vapor Concentration Enhancement in Compressed Humid Air Measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
,”
J. Chem. Eng. Data
0021-9568,
52
, pp.
1672
1677
.
19.
International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam
, 2009, “
Revised Release on the IAPWS Formulation 1995 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use
,” IAPWS Release, IAPWS Secretariat, www.iapws.orgwww.iapws.org
20.
Wagner
,
W.
, and
Pruß
,
A.
, 2002, “
The IAPWS Formulation 1995 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use
,”
J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data
0047-2689,
31
, pp.
387
535
.
21.
International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam
, 2008, “
Revised Release on the IAPWS Industrial Formulation 1997 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Water and Steam
,” IAPWS Release, IAPWS Secretariat, www.iapws.orgwww.iapws.org
22.
Wagner
,
W.
, and
Kretzschmar
,
H. -J.
, 2008,
International Steam Tables
,
Springer-Verlag
,
Berlin
.
23.
Parry
,
W. T.
,
Bellows
,
J. C.
,
Gallagher
,
J. S.
, and
Harvey
,
A. H.
, 2000,
ASME International Steam Tables for Industrial Use
,
ASME Press
,
New York
.
24.
International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam
, 2009, “
Revised Release on the Equation of State 2006 for H2O Ice Ih
,” IAPWS Release, IAPWS Secretariat, www.iapws.orgwww.iapws.org
25.
Feistel
,
R.
, and
Wagner
,
W.
, 2006, “
A New Equation of State for H2O Ice Ih
,”
J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data
0047-2689,
35
, pp.
1021
1047
.
26.
Verein Deutscher Ingenieure
, 2003, “
Thermodynamic Properties of Humid Air and Combustion Gases
,”
VDI‐Guideline 4670
,
Beuth-Verlag
,
Berlin
.
27.
Bücker
,
D.
,
Span
,
R.
, and
Wagner
,
W.
, 2003, “
Thermodynamic Property Models for Moist Air and Combustion Gases
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
0742-4795,
125
, pp.
374
384
.
28.
Hellriegel
,
T.
, 2001, “
Calculation of the Thermodynamic Property Functions of Humid Air in Power-Cycle Modeling
,” Diploma thesis, Zittau/Goerlitz University of Applied Sciences, Department of Technical Thermodynamics, Zittau.
29.
Kretzschmar
,
H. -J.
,
Stöcker
,
I.
,
Jähne
,
I.
,
Knobloch
,
K.
,
Hellriegel
,
T.
,
Kleemann
,
L.
, and
Seibt
,
D.
, 2001, “
Property Library LibHuAir for Humid Air Calculated as Ideal Mixture of Real Fluids
,” Zittau/Goerlitz University of Applied Sciences, Department of Technical Thermodynamics, Zittau, http://www.thermodynamic-property-libraries.comhttp://www.thermodynamic-property-libraries.com
30.
Kleemann
,
L.
, and
Seibt
,
D.
, 2002, “
Calculation of the Thermophysical Properties of Humid Combustion Gases and Humid Air in Power-Cycle Modeling
,” Diploma thesis, Zittau/Goerlitz University of Applied Sciences, Department of Technical Thermodynamics, Zittau.
31.
Kretzschmar
,
H. -J.
,
Stöcker
,
I.
,
Jähne
,
I.
,
Knobloch
,
K.
,
Kleemann
,
L.
, and
Seibt
,
D.
, 2002, “
Property Library LibHuGas for Humid Combustion Gases Calculated as Ideal Mixtures of Real Fluids
,” Zittau/Goerlitz University of Applied Sciences, Department of Technical Thermodynamics, Zittau, http://www.thermodynamic-property-libraries.comhttp://www.thermodynamic-property-libraries.com
32.
Ji
,
X.
, and
Yan
,
J.
, 2006, “
Thermodynamic Properties for Humid Gases from 298 to 573 K and up to 200 bar
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
1359-4311,
26
, pp.
251
258
.
33.
Ji
,
X.
,
Lu
,
X.
, and
Yan
,
J.
, 2003, “
Survey of Experimental Data and Assessment of Calculation Methods of Properties for the Air–Water Mixture
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
1359-4311,
23
, pp.
2213
2228
.
34.
Ji
,
X.
, and
Yan
,
J.
, 2003, “
Saturated Thermodynamic Properties for the Air-Water System at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
0009-2509,
58
, pp.
5069
5077
.
35.
Rabinovich
,
V. A.
, and
Beketov
,
V. G.
, 1995,
Moist Gases: Thermodynamic Properties
,
Begell House
,
New York
.
36.
Hyland
,
R. W.
, and
Wexler
,
A.
, 1983, “
Formulations for the Thermodynamic Properties of the Saturated Phases of H2O from 173.15 K to 473.15 K
,”
ASHRAE Trans.
0001-2505,
89
, pp.
500
519
.
37.
Hyland
,
R. W.
, and
Wexler
,
A.
, 1983, “
Formulations for the Thermodynamic Properties of Dry Air from 173.15 K to 473.15 K, and of Saturated Moist Air from 173.15 K to 372.15 K, at Pressures to 5 MPa
,”
ASHRAE Trans.
0001-2505,
89
, pp.
520
535
.
38.
Nelson
,
H. F.
, and
Sauer
,
H. J.
, 2002, “
Formulation of High-Temperature Properties of Moist Air
,”
HVAC&R Res.
1078-9669,
8
, pp.
311
334
.
39.
Gatley
,
D. P.
, 2005,
Understanding Psychrometrics
,
2nd ed.
,
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
,
Atlanta, GA
.
40.
Herrmann
,
S.
,
Kretzschmar
,
H. -J.
, and
Gatley
,
D. P.
, 2009, “
Thermodynamic Properties of Real Moist Air, Dry Air, Steam, Water, and Ice
,”
HVAC&R Res.
1078-9669,
15
, pp.
961
986
.
41.
Herrmann
,
S.
,
Kretzschmar
,
H. -J.
, and
Gatley
,
D. P.
, 2009,
Thermodynamic Properties of Real Moist Air, Dry Air, Steam, Water, and Ice, ASHRAE RP-1485
,
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
,
Atlanta, GA
.
42.
Kretzschmar
,
H. -J.
,
Herrmann
,
S.
,
Stöcker
,
I.
, and
Gatley
,
D. P.
, 2009, “
Property Library LibHuAirProp for Real Humid Air, Steam, Water, and Ice
,” Zittau/Goerlitz University of Applied Sciences, Department of Technical Thermodynamics, Zittau, http://www.thermodynamic-property-libraries.comhttp://www.thermodynamic-property-libraries.com
43.
Kunz
,
O.
,
Klimeck
,
R.
,
Wagner
,
W.
, and
Jaeschke
,
M.
, 2007,
The GERG-2004 Wide-Range Equation of State for Natural Gases and Other Mixtures
,
Fortschr.-Ber. VDI
,
Reihe 6: Energietechnik
, Nr.
557
,
VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf
.
44.
Mohr
,
P. J.
, and
Taylor
,
P. N.
, 2005, “
CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2002
,”
Rev. Mod. Phys.
0034-6861,
77
, pp.
1
107
.
45.
Gatley
,
D.
,
Herrmann
,
S.
, and
Kretzschmar
,
H. -J.
, 2008, “
A Twenty-First Century Molar Mass for Dry Air
,”
HVAC&R Res.
1078-9669,
14
, pp.
655
662
.
46.
International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam
, 2008, “
Revised Release on the Pressure Along the Melting and Sublimation Curves of Ordinary Water Substance
,” IAPWS Release, IAPWS Secretariat, www.iapws.orgwww.iapws.org
47.
International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam
, 2004, “
Guideline on the Henry's Constant and Vapor-Liquid Distribution Constant for Gases in H2O and D2O at High Temperatures
,” IAPWS Guideline, IAPWS Secretariat, www.iapws.orgwww.iapws.org
48.
Fernández-Prini
,
R.
,
Alvarez
,
J.
, and
Harvey
,
A. H.
, 2003, “
Henry’s Constants and Vapor-Liquid Distribution Constants for Gaseous Solutes in H2O and D2O at High Temperatures
,”
J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data
0047-2689,
32
, pp.
903
916
.
49.
Harvey
,
A. H.
, and
Huang
,
P. H.
, 2007, “
First-Principles Calculation of the Air-Water Second Virial Coefficient
,”
Int. J. Thermophys.
0195-928X,
28
, pp.
556
565
.
50.
Lemmon
,
E. W.
, and
Jacobsen
,
R. T.
, 2004, “
Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity Equations for Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon, and Air
,”
Int. J. Thermophys.
0195-928X,
25
, pp.
21
69
.
51.
Beirão
,
S. G. S.
,
Ramires
,
M. L. V.
,
Dix
,
M.
, and
Nieto de Castro
,
C. A.
, 2006, “
A New Instrument for the Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of Fluids
,”
Int. J. Thermophys.
0195-928X,
27
, pp.
1018
1041
.
52.
Kestin
,
J.
, and
Whitelaw
,
J. H.
, 1964, “
The Viscosity of Dry and Humid Air
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
0017-9310,
7
, pp.
1245
1255
.
53.
Hochrainer
,
D.
, and
Munczak
,
F.
, 1966, “
Viscosity Measurements on Air of Different Humidity and Temperature
,”
Sitzungsber. Österr. Akad. Wiss. Abt. II
,
175
, pp.
539
550
.
54.
Grüß
,
H.
, and
Schmick
,
H.
, 1928, “
On the Thermal Conductivity of Gaseous Mixtures
,”
Wiss. Veröffentl. Siemens-Konzern
,
7
, pp.
202
224
.
55.
Beirão
,
S. G. S.
,
Ribeiro
,
A. P.
,
Lourenço
,
M. J. V.
,
Santos
,
F. J. V.
, and
Nieto de Castro
,
C. A.
, 2008, “
Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of Humid Air: A First Approach
,”
Proceedings of the 29th International Thermal Conductivity Conference and Proceedings of the 17th International Thermal Expansion Symposium
,
J. R.
Koenig
and
H.
Ban
, eds.,
DEStech Publications, Inc.
,
Lancaster, PA
, pp.
345
355
.
56.
International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam
, 2008, “
Release on the IAPWS Formulation 2008 for the Viscosity of Ordinary Water Substance
,” IAPWS Release, IAPWS Secretariat, www.iapws.orgwww.iapws.org
57.
International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam
, 2008, “
Revised Release on the IAPS Formulation 1985 for the Thermal Conductivity of Ordinary Water Substance
,” IAPWS Release, IAPWS Secretariat, www.iapws.orgwww.iapws.org
58.
Vesovic
,
V.
, and
Wakeham
,
W. A.
, 1989, “
The Prediction of the Viscosity of Fluid Mixtures Over Wide Ranges of Temperature and Pressure
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
0009-2509,
44
, pp.
2181
2189
.
59.
Vesovic
,
V.
, and
Wakeham
,
W. A.
, 1991, “
Prediction of the Thermal Conductivity of Fluid Mixtures Over Wide Ranges of Temperature and Pressure
,”
High Temp. - High Press.
0018-1544,
23
, pp.
179
190
.
60.
Scalabrin
,
G.
,
Cristofoli
,
G.
, and
Grigiante
,
M.
, 2005, “
Modeling Alkane and Haloalkane Mixture Viscosities in a Three-Parameter Corresponding States Format
,”
Int. J. Thermophys.
0195-928X,
26
, pp.
429
452
.
61.
Scalabrin
,
G.
,
Piazza
,
L.
,
Grigiante
,
M.
, and
Baruzzo
,
M.
, 2005, “
Thermal Conductivity of Refrigerant Mixtures in a Three-Parameter Corresponding States Format
,”
Int. J. Thermophys.
0195-928X,
26
, pp.
399
412
.
62.
Maitland
,
G. C.
,
Rigby
,
M.
,
Smith
,
E. B.
, and
Wakeham
,
W. A.
, 1987,
Intermolecular Forces: Their Origin and Determination
,
Clarendon
,
Oxford
.
63.
Kretzschmar
,
H. -J.
,
Vogel
,
E.
,
Herrmann
,
S.
,
Stöcker
,
I.
, and
Teske
,
V.
, 2006, “
Property Library LibAirWa for Humid Air Calculated as an Ideal Mixture of Real Fluids
,” Zittau/Goerlitz University of Applied Sciences, Department of Technical Thermodynamics, Zittau, http://www.thermodynamic-property-libraries.comhttp://www.thermodynamic-property-libraries.com
You do not currently have access to this content.