Much of the technology in advanced diesel engines, such as high injection pressures, is aimed at overcoming the short ignition delay of conventional diesel fuels to promote premixed combustion in order to reduce $NOx$ and smoke. Previous work in a 2 l single-cylinder diesel engine with a compression ratio of 14 has demonstrated that gasoline fuel, because of its high ignition delay, is very beneficial for premixed compression-ignition compared with a conventional diesel fuel. We have now done similar studies in a smaller—0.537 l—single-cylinder diesel engine with a compression ratio of 15.8. The engine was run on three fuels of very different auto-ignition quality—a typical European diesel fuel with a cetane number (CN) of 56, a typical European gasoline of 95 RON and 85 MON with an estimated CN of 16 and another gasoline of 84 RON and 78 MON (estimated CN of 21). The previous results with gasoline were obtained only at 1200 rpm—here we compare the fuels also at 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm. At 1200 rpm, at low loads ($∼4 bars$ indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP)) when smoke is negligible, $NOx$ levels below 0.4 g/kWh can be easily attained with gasoline without using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), while this is not possible with the 56 CN European diesel. At these loads, the maximum pressure-rise rate is also significantly lower for gasoline. At 2000 rpm, with 2 bars absolute intake pressure, $NOx$ can be reduced below $0.4 g/kW h$ with negligible smoke $(FSN<0.1)$ with gasoline between 10 bars and 12 bars IMEP using sufficient EGR, while this is not possible with the diesel fuel. At 3000 rpm, with the intake pressure at 2.4 bars absolute, $NOx$ of $0.4 g/kW h$ with negligible smoke was attainable with gasoline at 13 bars IMEP. Hydrocarbon and CO emissions are higher for gasoline and will require after-treatment. High peak heat release rates can be alleviated using multiple injections. Large amounts of gasoline, unlike diesel, can be injected very early in the cycle without causing heat release during the compression stroke and this enables the heat release profile to be shaped.

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